Sunday, December 29, 2019
GLA and the Mayor Essay Greater London Authority and the MayorÃ¢â¬â¢s Environmental Policies Introduction London is of the greatest City in the world that has been successful in terms of production and competitive economy. Arguably, it is well known for its style, entrepreneurship, innovation, diversity as well as dynamism. The Greater London Authority (GLA) is a crucial managerial body for Greater London, which was formed in 2000 through a referendum. The body encompasses an executive Mayor who is elected directly, 25 members with inspection powers and a stuff of approximately 700 individuals. Most of its powers come from the Greater London Authority Act 2007 and Greater London Authority Act 1999, (Greater London Authority, 2006). The body has powers in various areas; such as, economic development, policing, transport, as well as emergency and fire planning in London. For effective functioning of Greater London Authority, four functional bodies were established to offer services for the above mentioned areas. The four bodies are: London Development Agency, Metropolitan Police Authority, Transport for London, and London Fire and Emergency planning authority. In terms of resources, this body is funded by the government, besides the money that is collected through taxation. Review of the powers and responsibilities of GLA and the Mayor As a matter of fact, London is one of the largest cities in the globe. Therefore, for the wellbeing of the people of this city to be observed, GLA under the chairmanship of the Mayor was given various responsibilities which could ensure that everything runs smoothly in London. In general terms, GLA has a strategic administration responsibility of the entire Greater London. Precisely, it has been given the responsibility of coordinating Greater LondonÃ¢â¬â¢s local authorities. The body has the same local government powers that have been granted to the City of London Corporation as well as the councils of thirty two London boroughs, (Greater London Authority, 2007). The Mayor was granted powers and responsibilities of making as well as influencing policies and strategies touching various areas in the entire city. To be more specific, the Mayor has about five major responsibilities. First, he has the responsibility of setting LondonÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic direction by formulating strategi es and plans for the entire city. Second, he prepares the budget and presents it to the Assembly for further discussion. Third, he represents London both at home and abroad. Fourth, he directs action to put into practice the strategies, in collaboration with other bodies in the GLA Group. Lastly, he has been given the responsibility of making appointments, to bodies that he heads and other pan-London bodies, (Dow, 2009), Literature review on Environmental strategies and policies by the Mayor in past five years According to the Mayor, London aims to be recognized as one of the leading cities both locally and globally in the world in improving the environment. This could be made possible through a reduction of pollution, dealing with climate change, consumption of fewer resources as well as development of a low carbon economy, (Andrew, Duncan, Jessica James, 2008). In order for this dream to be realized, the Mayor has proposed various plans and strategies; or rather policies, to be implemented to deal with environmental issues. The first strategy is the reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions throughout the City. According to Dow (2009), about 75% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s energy is utilized by cities and approximately 80.5% of the greenhouse gas emissions in the world occur in these cities. London alone contributes to these emissions in the United Kingdom up to about 79.9%, which has been approximated to be about forty four million tonnes of Carbon Dioxide. This amount is expected to increas e tremendously due to the ever increasing population as well as economic development. Therefore, reduction of the emission Carbon Dioxide is one of the priorities of the Mayor. It is projected that, by 2025 carbon dioxide emission should have reduced by about 65% in this city. This could be done through three ways. Firstly, efficiency of energy will be improved. Secondly, supply efficiency would be increased; and lastly, there will be development of renewable energy sources. To further contribute to the reduction of emissions of carbon dioxide, plans have been made to ensure that construction of buildings in the city meet the standards of the changing climate, (Greater London Authority, 2010). The second strategy is the London Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, (Greater London Authority, 2010). This strategy is concerned with three main things: identification of what and who is at risk in the current times within the city, investigation of how the change of climate will alter the risk of drought, flood and heatwave, and lastly, explanation of the actions that are required in order to manage this and those who will be responsible for it. According to scientists, it is expected that England would be experiencing hotter, drier summers and warmer wetter winters. This implies that, London is expecting to experience droughts as well as floods in the near future. As a precautionary measure, policies have been put into place to deal with these issues. For instance, the Drain London Forum has been given the responsibility of identifying areas at risk as well as coming up with plans of tackling the probable problem in these areas. A good of scholars assert that this is a visionary strategy and it will help London to be prepared for the uncertain future conditions based on the fact that climate conditions are changing fast. In fact, some parts of the world have already started feeling the impacts of Climate change. The third policy that was introduced by the Mayor which relates to the environment is the Waste Recycling policy. According to, Andrew, Duncan, Jessica andJames (2008), these policy is expected to save approximately 90 pounds annually through a reduction of the waste that is being produced in the city currently. Studies indicate that, about fifty five tonnes of waste is produced in London in a single day and approximately twenty tonnes annually. Reduction of waste will be undertaken in two ways: the first one is through the implementation of the Municipal Waste Management Strategy and the second way will be through the implementation of Business Waste Strategy, (Greater London Authority, 2010). Foundations have already been implemented towards this objective. For example, in The London Plan, policies have been included which will ensure that waste reduction in London has been achieved within a given period of time. Some of the objectives that have been included in this plan are: mana gement of waste in London as much as workable, promotion of activities aimed at managing wastes which would lead to achievement of the possible environmental advantages in terms of climate change as well as determining new reprocessing and composting objectives. It is believed that through these programs, London will be made a better place for its dwellers by reducing wastes within the country as well as reducing the cost of managing these wastes. Air quality is also one of the environmental aspects that have taken into account by the Mayor in London. Attempts to make London clean as well as green incorporate cleaning the air within the city. Consequently, the Mayor has tried to come up with policies that would ensure that there is reduction in air pollution. Some of these policies affects transport sector, which contributes a significant share of air pollution in London. These will include investment of millions of pounds to ensure that these strategies turns out successively. One of the policies aimed at enhancing air quality is cleaning the fleet of buses in London so that they conform to the Euro IV emissions standards for PM10 and NOx. Secondly, is a policy that aims at cleaning Private Hire Vehicle and taxi fleet by introduction of age limits to eliminate older and perhaps more polluting motor vehicles from the road, (Dow, 2009). Thirdly, is the policy that is focused on including minibuses and vans which must conform to Euro 3 standard in the Low Emission Zone (LEZ) starting from 2012. Lastly, is the introduction of a new NOx for LEZ beginning 2015. According to ( ), there are also other policies which are aimed at reduction of air pollution which are not related to the transport sector. These policies include: implementation of new standards of emission for new biomass boilers and joint power and heat systems; increasing public awareness to enlighten the Londoners the importance of reducing air pollution; and lastly, updating the practices that should be used in reduction of emissions of dust from construction sites as well as developing a Supplementary planning Guidance to motivate its implementation across London. Lastly, Greater London Authority has categorized water conservation as one of its priorities in creating a sustainable environment for the Londoners. The Mayor once said that his major goal for London as far as water is concerned, is the creation of an environment that meets the standards of for the preservation and protection of the quality of life of the citizen. He further argued that, this could only be made possible if the water resources of the City could be safeguarded. However, he also agree that, this would be very challenging bearing in mind that the impacts of climate change have already started being felt in some parts of the major cities of the world, as well as the increasing population. The first policy in this case is concerned with water usage in London. According to the Mayor supply management will be undertaken through reducing water loss through leaking, efficient water use, usage of reclaimed water, and development water resources that contributes least to climat e alteration. The second policy is aimed at encouraging citizens to learn to store water for future use. The third policy focuses on how water should be disposed. According to Greater London Authority (2006 ), wastewater should be released to a Ã¢â¬Å"foul sewerÃ¢â¬ and in rare cases, to the Ã¢â¬Å"combined sewerÃ¢â¬ . The three policies have had a significant impact on water usage in the city. Lately, people have learnt the importance of preserving water, thanks to the initiatives that the Greater London Authority. Analysis of the gap between policy, public policy initiatives and general practice Arguably, the effects of the policies that have been introduced by the Mayor are yet to be fully experienced. In general terms, there seems to be a gap between policy, public policy initiatives as well as general practice among the public. To begin with, for these policies to be fully implemented, a lot of resources are needed. For instance, in order to achieve a reduction of emission of carbon dioxide by 6o% by 2025, about 60 billion pounds are required for the implementation of the proposed policies. The Greater London Authority expects that the government will cheap inn by offering some financial assistance which will enable this body to attain its objectives, (Greater London Authority, 2009). However, it is not certain that the central government will provide the additional resources to facilitate the plans. Actually, this has been one of the reasons why some of the plans are yet to be implemented; while others have already been implemented but challenges are being encountered in realizing the projected outcomes. Another thing is that, there is no enough public awareness as far the environment is concerned. Therefore, the body has a lot to do if at its policies are to have positive impacts or rather the intended objectives. For instance, the Mayor and his team should start with public awareness campaign with an objective of educating the public the importance of the environment in their lives. This will have a very significant impact when the policies are being implemented, as people will be aware of the intentions of these policies as well as strategies. Moreover, through these campaigns, the general public will be taught to be responsible for their activities in relation to the environment. As such, the policymakers will have full support of the public in carrying out their activities. Undeniably, London is one of the developed cities technologically. However, a lot is needed in the implementation of these policies and it will need investing good amount of cash in acquiring or rather implementing the needed technology. For instance, according to the Mayor, all new homes which are to be constructed in the city as well as the current homes should be improved to become energy and water efficient. Additionally, certain types of vehicles such as the electric vehicle will be produced to lower carbon dioxide emissions. This would need application of advanced technology which will be considerably expensive. Therefore, enough study should be undertaken in order to establish how to effectively implement these policies based on the existing technology in order to reduce or rather cut down costs that will be incurred on technology. Lastly, it is true that there has been an improvement in the living standards of the Londoners in the recent years and it is expected to continue improving. However, it should be noted that, there are significant inequalities in many facets of life in this city, which impacts selective areas as well as groups more than others, and there are chances that the situation would continue. As such, some of the policies that are intended to be implemented to promote a better environment might negatively affect other groups, (Greater London Authority, 2009). For instance, policies that are intended to improve the efficiency of water in the future days by using meters may have a negative impact on low-income groups if these policies will result to an increase in average bills. Opinions concerning priorities and a particular policy Different opinions have been given by various individuals as far as the MayorÃ¢â¬â¢s priorities of London are concerned. For instance, certain people agree that the priorities are good but some other things could be given more priority as compared to the execution of some Ã¢â¬Å"environmental-relatedÃ¢â¬ policies. For instance, lately, creation of more jobs should be given priority as the living standards have increased. The situation has been worsened by the recent global economic crisis. As such, what is really needed is creation of more jobs opportunities for the general public. However, generally, most individuals are supporting these priorities, (Andrew, Duncan, Jessica,James, 2008). They argue that, for a better future and the wellbeing of the people of London, development of the city should go hand in hand with preservation of the environment. Thus, environmental development policies should be prioritized as compared to policies in other areas. For instance, most people a gree that air pollution as been one of the biggest environmental problems in London. Therefore, the initiative that has been taken by the Mayor and his team to address this problem will have a significant impact in the lives of the Londoners. For example, it will contribute to health problems that are associated with air pollution. Effectiveness of GLA and the Mayor of London on environmental issues Despite of the minor setbacks that have been experienced by the GLA and the Mayor, it can be said that these body has been effective in tackling the key issues that are related to the environment. For example, some of the strategies that had been proposed have already been executed. For example, the objective of making London Ã¢â¬Å"a global point of reference for sustainable cities by 2020Ã¢â¬ is already being implemented by the London Sustainable Development Commission. Although, the plan to prevent the entry of high polluting vehicles to London was extended in by two years in 2010, some of policies that will enable reduction of carbon emission are already in place. For example, at one point the Mayor announced discounts on van with low emissions. This was an attempt to motivate the general public to prioritize low-emission vans to reduce emission of carbon dioxide in the City. The extension was necessary to
Saturday, December 21, 2019
Essays on Financial Organization Analysis Assignment Running Head: J.P. Morgan business; A Swot Analysis. J.P. Morgan business. College J.P Morgan is a U.S multinational with a heavy presence in the financial sector; it is particularly conspicuous in securities business, investment services as well as retail banking. The institutions history dates back to the year 1799 when its very first predecessor was chartered. It has grown over time acquiring new partners thus strengthening its position to withstand the test of time and become what it is today; Sir J.P. Morgan become a senior partner in the year 1895 and the firm was renamed J.P. Morgan and Co. It acquired Bear Stearns Companies Inc in 2008 which further strengthened its capabilities in the wide range of business. In 2010 it fully took over ownership of J.O. Morgan Cazenove making it even stronger in terms of assets and capital. J.P. Morgan has positioned itself strategically as an institution building relationships with its target customer thus the slogan Ã¢â¬Å"The right relatio nship is everything else.Ã¢â¬ Swot Analysis. J.P. Morgan as an institution targets mostly affluent investors who are both enterprises and individuals. It enjoys a strong brand, visibility and a stable financial base as well as a great presence across the world. It in fact has employed more than two hundred and fifty thousand people in the whole world. Strength involves its excellent services offered to customers owing to its extensive retail branch network. Products offered include agent lending, custody services, depository receipts, clearing, collateral management, financing prime brokerage and fund management services. Its brand is heavily present in the business to business segment and this is a real plus on its image. More importantly itÃ¢â¬â¢s the biggest bank in America considering its sales, the market value, profitability and asset base. Weaknesses are also there despite its many strengths; it has continued over time to depend on the American units for profitability. There is also a growing amount of competition fr om other firms providing financial services and the market in the financial services keeps fluctuating thus not easy to forecast. Competitors include, ING, Prudential and wells Fargo groups. Opportunities for J.P Morgan include; expanding into other markets in foreign countries with its strong brand as well as stable capital position. There is also a very great opportunities in diversifying product portfolios for the customer. This will reduce dependence on traditional products and business models thus check the threat posed by competitors. They also have an opportunity to have investments across the world under the auspices of the global stature. Opportunity also exists in increasing the commercial banking business and entering into more joint ventures. Two major threats are there to the business of J.P Morgan. These involve the ever changing industry regulations by government financial crises in the form of recessions. The ever unstable market for mortgage business in the United States and across the world is another important threat to the business. How J.P Morgan could capitalize on strengths to minimize weakness. The corporation has a very firm financial base and this can be taken advantage of to minimize weaknesses by expanding and investing in foreign markets. Being the largest bank in the United States by profitability and asset base it should take advantage of this position to acquire more small firms and enter into more joint ventures so as to further consolidate the capital position. Diversifying products range will also help J.P. Morgan stand strong in the ever fluctuating market place as a well performing line will be leaned on incase another line is hit. The greatest asset lies in expansion and diversification as this will remove the complacency of depending on traditional products and banking models thus remain relevant in the fast changing global market as well as weather the ever increasing competition. Existence of many regulations such as the home mortgage disclosure act, Equal Credit opportunity Act and lending limits put a heavy burden on financial institutions to comply. This threat is compounded by the fact that these regulations are ever changing and a financial institution may easily find itself in a legal suit. During the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s announcement of its third quarter results the most important message was that it was not going to be profitable as should have been. This is majorly due to government regulations as well as the legal problems the company faces. The structure of the American government places financial institutions under regulation by many agencies. J.P. Morgan for instance is subject to regulations by OCC, SEC, CFTC, and FDIC at various levels putting in a huge burden that sometimes leads to losses (Murphy, 2013). Capital requirements, antimony laundering responsibilities and many other government regulations make it difficult financial institutions to sm oothly carry on their business. The Volcker Rule which is part of Dodd-Frank Financial reform law places limits on how much one investment back may fund its own privately owned equity funds. It also puts restrictions on risky though profitable trading in which institutions use their internal funds to fund trades. These requirements forced the company to let its private equity ranch to become independent (Scott, 2013). Financial institutions such as JPMorgan Co. can minimize the impacts of regulation by ensuring strict adherence to the existing policies so as to avert possible legal suits that affect their capital positions. The pressure exerted by capital requirements can be weathered by holding an excess of the requirements as they did in anticipation of tough economic times ahead in the periods before recession. (Murphy, 2013). This is a very prudent step as for instance it assisted JPMorgan come out of the recession unaffected hence applied to requirements of government could be a very apt cushion. Another way to avert negative impacts of regulation is for JPMorgan working together with other financial institutions engage and negotiate with government to implement policies that make the business environment favorable. Reference. 1. Daniel Darst et al. (2009) Journey: Retirement Insights and Solution from J.P. Morgan. 1st Ed. 2. Edward V. Murphy. (2013). Who Regulates Whom and How? An Overview of U.S. Financial Regulatory Policy for Banking and Securities Markets. Congressional Research Service. 3. Scott Gamm. (2013). JPMorgan To Spin Off Private Equity Business As Volcker Rule Comes To Life. Forbes. Retrieved at http://www.forbes.com/sites/scottgamm/2013/06/14/jpmorgan-to-spin-off-private- equity-business-as-volcker-rule-comes-to-life/ 4. Sital S. Patel. (2013). Superstorm of Regulation and Capital rules Forces J.P. Morgan to Retreat, Experts Say. The Wall Street Journal, retrieved at http://blogs.marketwatch.com/thetell/2013/10/11/superstorm-of-regulation-and- capital-rules- force-j-p-morgan-to-retreat-experts-say/
Friday, December 13, 2019
The Impact of Music on Language Early Literacy: A Research Summary In Support of KindermusikÃ¢â¬â¢s ABC Music Me The Impact of Music on Language Early Literacy: A Research Summary In Support of KindermusikÃ¢â¬â¢s ABC Music Me Introduction Early childhood classroom teachers believe in the power of music to engage children. What scientifically based research supports the use of music and musical instruction to build early literacy skills? This research summary answers that question, providing support to educators who wish to integrate music and musical instruction into their early language and literacy programs in schools. This research summary reviews high-quality experimental studies conducted in classrooms with young children receiving music education, plus relevant brain research that focuses on the impact of musical instruction on the brain. We will write a custom essay sample on Papoer or any similar topic only for you Order Now The impact of music and musical instruction on early language and literacy development for young children is examined in the following areas: Ã¢â¬ ¢ ReadingComprehensionandVerbalMemory Ã¢â¬ ¢ ListeningSkills Ã¢â¬ ¢ Vocabulary,includingforEnglishLanguageLearners Ã¢â¬ ¢ PhonologicalandPhonemicAwareness Ã¢â¬ ¢ WritingandPrintAwareness Ã¢â¬ ¢ ImpactonChildrenwithDisabilities Ã¢â¬ ¢ FamilyInvolvement The research summarized below provides strong support for including music and musical instruction in the earlychildhoodclassroom. Importantly,thisrecommendationismadenotjustforthevalueofthemusical experience itself, but also because of the impact music and musical instruction can have on young childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development of language and early literacy. Music Instruction Reading Scores Linked ReadingcomprehensionisseenasÃ¢â¬Å"theessenceofreadingÃ¢â¬ (Durkin,1993)andthedesiredoutcomeof reading instruction, including the focus of assessment on standardized reading tests starting in third grade. ComprehensionisdefinedasÃ¢â¬Å"intentionalthinkingduringwhichmeaningisconstructedthroughinteractions betweentextandreaderÃ¢â¬ (HarrisHodges,1995). Anumberofresearchstudieshavefoundthatchildrenwhoparticipateinmusicinstructiontendtoscorehigher on tests of reading comprehension than children who do not participate in musical instruction. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ameta-analysisof25correlationalstudies,someinvolvingsamplesizesofover500,000students, foundaÃ¢â¬Å"strongandreliableassociationÃ¢â¬ betweenmusicinstructionandscoresontestsofreading comprehension(Butzlaff,2000). Astudyof4,739elementaryandmiddleschoolstudentsinfourregionsoftheUnitedStatesrevealed astrongrelationshipbetweenelementary(third-orfourth-grade)studentsÃ¢â¬â¢academicachievementas measuredbytestscoresandtheirparticipationinhigh-qualitymusicprograms(JohnsonMemmott, 2006). While these studies are appealing, one cannot conclude from correlational studies alone that the music instruction was the cause of the gains in reading scores. To a nswer that question, we turn to the experimental studies that involved pre- and post-testing of young children receiving classroom music education. Theauthorsofaclassicstudy(Hurwitzetal,1975)askedwhethermusictrainingimprovedreading performance in first grade children. The experimental group received musical instruction including listening to folk songs with an emphasis the listening for melodic and rhythmic elements. The control group consisted ofchildrenwhowerematchedinage,IQ,andsocioeconomicstatusandwhoreceivednospecialtreatment. Aftertraining,themusicgroupexhibitedsignificantlyhigherreadingscoresthandidthecontrolgroup,scoring inthe88thpercentileversusthe72ndpercentile. Moreover,continuedmusicaltrainingwasbeneficial;afteran additional year of musical training, the experimental groupÃ¢â¬â¢s reading comprehension scores were still superior to the control groupÃ¢â¬â¢s scores. These findings provide initial support for the view that musicinstructionfacilitatestheabilitytoread. More recent research focuses on the specific impact of music instruction on the subprocesses involved in successful reading. Researchersbelievethatmusicinstruction impacts a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s brain functioning in processing language, which in turn impacts reading subprocesses like phonemic awareness and vocabulary. These subprocesses ultimately impact a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to read with comprehension. Music Instruction Improves Verbal Memory Research Into Practice: ABC Music Me KindermusikÃ¢â¬â¢sABCMusicMehelpsteachers engage young children in language- and literacy-rich musical activities that include playful instruction in foundational music skills andinstrumentexploration. Researchsuggests that engaging young children in these types of musical activities are correlated with later success in reading comprehension. Anotherwayinwhichmusicinstructionmaypositivelyimpactreadingabilityisthroughincreasedverbal memory. The findings linking music training to verbal memory are important because verbal memory is essentialforreadingprintedwordswithcomprehension. Asreadingprogressestosentencesandtextsof greater lengths, verbal memory allows a child to retain material in memory as it is being read so that syntactic andsemanticanalysesnecessarytocomprehensioncanbeperformed. Verbalmemoryisessentialforall childrenlearningtoread(Brady,1991;StoneandBrady,1995),andpoorperformanceinverbalmemoryhas beenassociatedwithreadingdisabilitiesforyoungchildren(AckermanandDykman,1993;Cornwall,1992; Scarborough,1998). Recentbrainandpsychologicalresearchshowsthatmusicinstructioncanhaveapositiveimpactonverbal memory. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Astudyofninety6-to15-year-oldboysfoundthatthosewithmusictraininghadsignificantlybetter verbal learning and retention abilities. The longer the duration of the music training, the better the verbalmemory(Ho,Cheung,Chan,2003). Afollow-upstudyconcludedthattheeffectwascausal. The authors suggest that the cause of the increase in verbal memory was neuroanatomical changes in the brains of children who were playing music. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Anotherstudyfoundthatlearningtoplaya musical instrument enhances the brainÃ¢â¬â¢s ability Research Into Practice: ABC Music Me torememberwords. Ã¢â¬Å"Adultswithmusictraining ABCMusicMeengageschildreninactive in their childhood demonstrate better verbal music-making with a variety of musical memory,Ã¢â¬ accordingtostudyauthorChan. instruments both in the classroom and at Thisbrainresearchwith60adultsshowedthat home. Researchsuggeststhatthisearly musicians have enlarged left cranial temporal experience may improve childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s verbal regions of the brain, which is the area involved in memory, an important factor in successful processingheardinformation. Asaresult,people text comprehension for later stages of reading withmusictrainingcouldremember17%more development. verbal information than those without music training(Chanetal,1998). Music Helps Build Listening Skills Ã¢â¬Å"Learningtolistenisaprerequisitetolisteningtolearn,Ã¢â¬ stressesresearcherMayesky(1986). Listeningisthe first language mode that children acquire, and it provides a foundation for all aspects of language and reading development. Listeningisaverylargepartofschoollearning,withstudentsspendinganestimated50to75 percentofclassroomtimelisteningtotheteacher,tootherstudents,ortomedia(Smith,1992). Despitethefrequencyoflisteningactivityinclassrooms,listeningskillsarenotfrequentlytaughtexplicitly (HyslopTone,1988;Newton,1990). Ã¢â¬Å"Mostteachersteach,assumingthatbecausetheyaretalking,their studentsarelisteningÃ¢â¬ (Swanson,1996). Asaresult,manychildrendonotacquirethelisteningskillsnecessary to acquire new knowledge and information. Too often listening is thought to be a natural skill that develops automatically, but in fact developing good listeningskillsrequiresexplicitinstruction. Ã¢â¬Å"Ifweexpectchildrentobecomegoodlisteners,Ã¢â¬ ¦weneed to teach them to become activelistenersÃ¢â¬ (Jalongo, 1995). Directinstructioninlisteningskillsshouldinclude Ã¢â¬Å"lessonsdesignedtospecificallyteachandmodelthe skillsnecessaryforactivelisteningÃ¢â¬ (Matheson,Moon Winiecki,2000). Anexperimentalstudywithyoung English language earners showed that focused listening instruction can benefit listening comprehension for childrenlearningasecondlanguage(GohTaib,2006). Musicalactivitiesarecitedbyresearchersaseffective experiences for building listening skills in the classroom (Hirt-Mannheimer,1995;Wolf,1992),forbothmainstream classrooms and classrooms with children who have disabilities. (HumpalWolf,2003). Research Into Pract ice: ABC Music Me EachunitofABCMusicMegiveschildren not only the opportunity to listen actively to music, but also includes focused listening activities using music, non-musical sounds, andlanguage. Classroomroutineshelp teachers focus childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s attention on listening todirections. Read-aloudstoriesandsongs give children opportunities to practice listening to extended discourse. Recentbrainresearch(Flohretal,1996)showsthatmusictrainingchangesandimprovesbrainfunctioning relatedtolistening. Anexperimentalstudywithchildrenages4to6providedmusictrainingfor25minutesfor 7weeks,andthenmeasuredbrainactivity. ThosechildrenwhohadreceivedmusicaltrainingproducedEEG frequencies associated with increased cognitive processing and greater relaxation. Music Can Build Vocabulary, including for English Language Learners Manyeducationalresearcherspromotemusicasawayto enhance vocabulary acquisition and comprehension, and emphasize musicÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to engage children in instruction (FountasPinnell,1999;MillerCoen,1994;Page,1995; Smith,2000;Wiggins,2007). Accordingtoeducationalresearchers,thereissubstantial evidence that children acquire vocabulary incidentally byreadingandlisteningtooralstories(Krashen,1989). Duringthepreschoolyearsbeforechildrencanread, children rely exclusively on the oral language they listen to in order to acquire How to cite Papoer, Essay examples
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Questions: 1. Explain the different forms of business units(sole proprietorship, partnership, limited company) available, highlighting the benefits and limitations of each.2. Explain financial accounting and management accounting, highlighting the differences between the two strands of accounting.3. Assuming that you have not been given any information about the inheritance of the brothers. Explain the sources of finance available to a business owner, looking at Short-term sources, Medium-term sources and Long-term sources of finance giving examples of each. Answers: Introduction In starting up a business, there are various important decisions that are required to be undertaken. The most important decision is mainly with respect to the selection of appropriate business units. The type of business unit that must be considered in starting a business is crucial and there could be the selection of different important formats that could be possible such as sole proprietorship, partnership and limited company. Apart from the selection of sources of financing, it is also essential that appropriate decisions should be made with respect to the sources of financing that are available to the business. In starting a business, it is essential that appropriate financing sources should be selected so that the business operations can be managed in a highly efficient manner. This report is therefore aimed at analysing the different form of business units that are available to the two brothers that have considered for setting up a business. The analysis will focus on providing an in-depth analysis on the differences between financial accounting and management accounting so that the two brothers could understand its importance and apply them efficiently in managing organisations operations. Finally, the report will include an analysis of different important sources of financing that these two brothers would consider in performing the management of their business operations (Needles, Powers and Crosson, 2013). 1. Different forms of Business Units and their Benefits and Limitations There are different forms of business formats that are available to a business to consider. However different business formats are applicable in different situations depending on the nature of the business. There are mostly three different forms of business units that are available to an organisation to consider. These are mainly categorised as sole proprietorship, partnership and limited company. The role and importance of these different forms of business unit is crucial and it is therefore essential that a proper understanding of all such business formats including their advantages and limitations is essential. An analysis of all these important business formats including the analysis of their advantages and limitations is performed as follows: Sole Proprietorship: Sole proprietorship is an important business format which mainly implies the conduct of the business activities by a single owner of the firm. The sole proprietor is the single owner of a firm and he/she is responsible for the overall management of the organisation. As a result, the introduction of capital is also performed by the sole proprietor and he/she is responsible for the entire profit and loss from the firm. In simple words, the entire management of the firm is carried out by the sole proprietor and the responsibility for the results as achieved is therefore with the owner of the firm i.e. sole proprietor. There are certain important advantages associated with sole proprietorship. As for instance, the main advantage with the sole proprietor is that the sole proprietor is responsible for the entire management of the business. As a result, the entire control is mainly with respect to the sole proprietor. The sole proprietor can take decisions without any b urden, and there is no one to stop him/her from doing so. The disadvantage with sole proprietor is that the entire loss has to be borne by the sole proprietor himself, and there is no any division of risk (Brigham and Daves, 2015). Partnership: Partnership is another important form of business unit that could be utilised for the purpose of starting a business unit. In respect to partnership form of business, there are two or more than two partners that are responsible for the management of the entire business. Partnership business unit can be followed when there are two owners ready to perform the management of a business, and in this business form, the partners are responsible for the entire management of the business. However the share as contributed by each partner mainly determines their stake in the partnership firm and their share in the profits. Since there are two or more persons responsible for the management of the entire business, it provides flexibility in performing the management of the entire business. As a result, the main advantage associated with partnership is that it provides good flexibility in taking important decisions and the involvement of two or more persons allows for better ability i n taking important decisions. However, the disadvantage associated with partnership is that it leads to dilution of control, and secondly, the profits of the firm need to be shared. The individual partner cannot take decisions freely which they could undertake in respect to sole proprietorship firm (Longenecker, Petty, Palich and Hoy, 2011). Limited Company: Limited company is also an important form of business unit that could be considered by businesses in setting up their business. A limited company can be defined as a company whereby the liability of member is limited to the extent of investment as made by them in the company. The limited companies can be limited by shares or limited by guarantees. The companies limited by shares can further be divided into public companies and private companies. The limited companies are available all across the world and this is an important form of business unit that could be utilised by businesses in starting up their ventures. An analysis of the advantages of limited company indicates that this business format has the advantages such as the liability of the company is limited, but it is only to the extent of the investment as made by each individual contributor on the company. Another major advantage is that it is limited company has separate legal entity from its owners. This fo rmat of the business has advantage in the form of tax saving advantage, as it offers opportunities to save taxes over the profit. However, in respect to the disadvantage is concerned, this format of business unit can be considered as highly complex and there is limitation in respect to limited company which is in the form of restriction over the raising of capital. There has also been the dilution of power in respect to such limited company which can be regarded as another major limitation (Kieso, Weygandt and Warfield, 2011). On the basis of analysis of different business format and their advantages and disadvantages, the business format that is recommended to the two brothers is partnership form of business unit. 2. Financial Accounting and Management Accounting Financial accounting and management accounting are the important types of accounting and their knowledge is crucial in performing the efficient management of the business. An analysis of the concept of financial accounting and management accounting is that financial accounting is concerned with providing information to different stakeholders of the business such as creditors, shareholders, investors, and others. Financial accounting is concerned with assessing the overall performance of the business whereby the focus has been towards recording and measuring the financial performance of the business. It involves recording the business transactions, preparing financial statements so that the stakeholders of the company are informed about the entire performance of the business (Besley and Brigham, 2011). Contrary to the concept of financial accounting, the concept of managerial accounting is also an important concept and it is concerned with providing information regarding the organisations performance to the internal managers within organisation. Management accounting provides relevant information to the managers inside the organisation so that relevant decisions can be taken by them in leading the organisation to higher success levels. Management accounting is therefore the field of accounting that is concerned with analysing and providing information to the internal management with the main purpose of allowing them in planning, controlling and decision making process. In simple words, management accounting can therefore be defined as the identification, measurement, analysis, preparation, interpretation and communication of information so that management can make use of such information in taking relevant decisions (Needles, Powers and Crosson, 2012). An analysis of the differences between financial accounting and management accounting indicates that financial accounting is concerned with providing information about the organisations performance to the external stakeholders of the organisation whereas management accounting is concerned with providing information to the internal managers of the organisation. The objective of financial accounting is mainly to present the end results of a business such as its profitability or the financial position as at a particular date whereas the management accounting has the objective of providing information with a view to plan and set goals of the organisation. Further, there is no such legal requirement in respect to managerial accounting whereas in respect to financial accounting, it is legally required to disclose the financial performance of the organisation. These are the basic differences in respect to managerial accounting and financial accounting (Needles, Powers and Crosson, 2013). 3. Sources of Financing Businesses require adequate level of financing from different sources in meeting out their short term, medium term and long term need. The different financing sources along with their examples are analysed as follows: Long Term Financing Sources: Businesses need funds for long term purposes, and the important sources available to them can be classified as equity capital, debt and retained earnings. Equity is mainly the funding raised by way of inviting public to subscribe to the shares of the company and become its owners. Debt financing is mainly a kind of borrowing which could be done by businesses in the form of loans from bank or it could also be in the form of private lenders. Retained earning is known as the earnings of the firm that has been retained in the business, and it could be utilised in meeting out the long term business requirements for funding. These are the important financing sources in meeting out the business requirements for long term needs (Needles and Crosson, 2013). Medium Term Financing Sources: Apart from the long term financing sources, there is medium term financing sources that could also be utilised. The medium term financing sources as available to businesses are classified as term loans and leasing. Term loans are taken usually for period ranging from 2 to 5 years, and this medium term financing source is quite crucial in allowing organisation to meet out their business requirements efficiently. Apart from this, leasing is another important medium term financing source that could be utilised by businesses, and in this mode, the financier would purchase the equipment and it would then be leased for regular payments (Needles and Powers, 2013). Short Term Sources: There is funding needed by businesses in meeting out their daily business requirements, and this can be appropriately addressed through the application of short term financing sources. The important short term financing sources available to businesses include bank overdraft, trade credit etc. Bank overdraft is mainly the raising of funds from banks for the short term purpose whereby the business agrees to pay interest to the bank for the purchases. Apart from this, trade credit is the daily credit obtained from debtors whereby the funds from the credit purchases are being utilised in meeting out the business requirements (Bamber and Parry, 2014). These are the important sources of financing that are available to businesses in meeting out their short term, medium term and long term funding requirements. Conclusion In this report, a critical assessment has been carried out with respect to different forms of business, and also the sources of financing as available to business. The performance of analysis indicated that there are different important formats of business that could be considered by businesses and these include sole proprietorship, partnership and limited companies. These business formats have different roles and importance, and they are suitable under different circumstances. The analysis indicated that these sources have their own advantages and disadvantages. The different between financial accounting and management accounting is evaluated and it is identified that financial accounting is concerned with the financial performance of the organisation and it aims at meeting out the needs and expectations of the external stakeholders of the organisation whereas management accounting is aimed at providing information to the management within organisation for the purpose of allowing th em in making important decisions, and it is therefore considered as focused towards internal department of the organisation. Finally, different important sources of financing are identified which includes short term, medium term and long term financing, and they also have their own specification and importance. Recommendations: It is recommended that the two brothers should consider partnership format of starting business, and they should make use of the above identified financing sources in meeting out their long term, medium term and short term financing needs. References Bamber, M. and Parry, S. (2014), Accounting and Finance for Managers: A Decision-Making Approach, Kogan Page Publishers. Besley, S. and Brigham, E. (2011), Principles of Finance, 5th ed., Cengage Learning. Brigham, E. and Daves, P. (2015), Intermediate Financial Management, 12th ed., Cengage Learning. Kieso, D.E., Weygandt, J.J. and Warfield, T.D. (2011), Intermediate Accounting, Volume 1, John Wiley Sons. Longenecker, J., Petty, J., Palich, L. and Hoy, F. (2011), Small Business Management: Launching and Growing Entrepreneurial Ventures 16th ed., Cengage Learning. Needles, B., Powers, M. and Crosson, S. (2012), Principles of Accounting, 12th ed., Cengage Learning. Needles, B. and Crosson, S. (2013), Managerial Accounting, 10th ed., Cengage Learning. Needles, B. and Powers, M. (2013), Principles of Financial Accounting, Cengage Learning. Needles, B., Powers, M. and Crosson, S. (2013), Financial and Managerial Accounting, 10th ed., Cengage Learning.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
child abuse and elder abuse Essay Child Abuse and Elder Abuse Child Abuse Child abuse is any abnormal behavior, which is directed towards a child and it usually takes many forms. The different forms of child abuse are child sexual abuse, pedophilia, physical abuse, child neglect, emotional neglect and failure to thrive. Most of these forms of child abuse could be very direct while the others are not very direct. Therefore, the forms that are not direct usually require a person who is not biased of anything and qualified to prove that there is child abuse (Emedicinehealth, 2011). We will write a custom essay sample on child abuse and elder abuse specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on child abuse and elder abuse specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on child abuse and elder abuse specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The article Ã¢â¬Å"Morning the Life of a Beaten ToddlerÃ¢â¬ describes a case of a child abuse, which was very horrific. It was a form of physical abuse where the foster mother companion of the child, Mrs. Oliver, beat her child who later died in the hospital. Mrs. Oliver was the companion of Ms Cummings who was the foster mother of the child. Mrs. Oliver used a metal rod or baseball bat to beat the child, who was eighteen months old, known as Louis Dewayne Mosely. The child, Mosely, sustained several injuries, which led to his death. Ã¢â¬Å"According to the police, Mosely, had been left in the care of Mr. Oliver, by Ms Cummings, the foster mother, in her apartment in Cypress Hill, BrooklynÃ¢â¬ (Robbins, 2011). The most shocking part of the incident was that the child was only eighteen months and that he did not know anything and additionally, the child was very helpless, that is, he could defend himself from the activity. The form of child abuse, which was involved in this case, was physical abuse. This kind of abuse was very direct and the parent, Kysheen Oliver, intended to beat her child. Although, the reasons for beating her child are not yet known, there is no reason, which the mother can give to justify the acts of committing the horrific act of beating her child to death. It was clear that the mother used an object like that of a metal rod or a baseball bat to perform the physical abuse to the small child who was very helpless. In conjunction to the physical abuse of the child as form of child abuse, the foster mother also committed murder in the first degree. The medical examiners gave very conclusive results on how the boy died (Robbins, 2011). The boy died from injuries of the physical abuse, which were inflicted by the foster mother. Additionally, it can be said that the mother was not acting in defense of her dear life because she was beating a helpless child who did not understand what was happening and neither did the child have the ability to protect himself from the beating. To make matters worse the mother used an object to beat the small innocent boy. Therefore, the mother will have to answer on charges of child abuse in the form of physical abuse and committing murder. This kind of child abuse has affected several people who have been the victims of the death of the child. First, if the boy survived the physical abuse, he would have been affected very much. The boy would have grown up in fear and this could have even led to post-traumatic stress disorder due to the kind of physical abuse or violence that he has experienced in his life at that young age. Additionally, the social life of that boy could have been ruined because he would have lacked confidence in himself leading to him becoming a loner. However, since the young boy died, the victims of this physical abuse were the different people who attended the funeral and the foster father of the child, Mr. Oliver. First, Mr. Oliver has been hit by a lot of shock in disbelief due to the kind of abuse committed by his wife. He does not believe that his own wife whom he loved and trusted with their child could ever commit such a horrific crime towards their child. He has been affected emotionally and this will never live his mind. Additionally, the people who attended the funeral were hit by disbelief and they were emotionally disturbed that somebody could beat up a helpless child to death. However, it should not be forgotten that the mother of the child needs serious medical attention. Elder Abuse Elder abuse can be defined as any type harm, which is directed towards the older people. There are very many forms of elder abuse, which can be charged in a court of law. These forms of elder abuse are physical elder abuse, mental elder abuse, elder abuse neglect, and exploitation/financial elder abuse (Elder abuse foundation, 2011). They could be also direct or indirect where they need a person who is not biased and is very professional in determining whether there has been a form of elder abuse. It is worth noting that elder abuse occurs to those people who are elderly like the grandfathers and grandmothers. An example of a good case is in the article Ã¢â¬Å"Facing Up to Elder Abuse,Ã¢â¬ which was in the New York Times. The case is about an elderly person who was being abused by her own son. The elder woman, Anne DeBraw, describes the abuse, which has being going on for a couple of years (LeDuff, 1997). She remembers one incident when she was walking home and heard the footsteps of the prowler her roof. It was very dark and therefore, she could not clearly see who it was. Suddenly the prowler jumped from the roof towards her and attacked her. When the elderly woman is giving her story, she burst into tears because of the way she has been so terrified of the prowler and yet she could do nothing because the prowler was her own son (LeDuff, 1997). The prowler used to beat her and inflict injuries on her body. This had being going on for quite some time and she used to stay in fear without any help in her own home. The form of elder abuse involved in the case is physical elder abuse. The prowler has been attacking the elderly woman, his mother, by beating her up and causing physical bodily harm. The woman is about seventy-nine years old, making it a form of elder abuse. It makes it an elderly abuse because the prowler did this intentionally and the old woman did not provoke her in doing this. The most horrific thing is that the prowler beat up his biological mother causing injuries without even caring for her or having any feelings. On the same case, another form of elder abuse is the elder abuse neglect. The son shows this where he has neglected his own mother to the point of beating her up (LeDuff, 1997). This means that the son does not care about her mother in the fact that she is not able to do some of the things that she used to do to him when she was taking care of him as a child. Instead of helping her, he continuously beat her without any reason. This kind of neglect is the one that is making the elderly woman not to be able in protecting herself or even going forward and reporting this to the police. This is because the person who was supposed to be protecting her as neglected her and instead he is beating her up. Therefore, in a court of law, her son should be charged with elder abuse neglect because of the kind of treatment he accords to her own mother. To some point of view, it might be direct therefore, a professional person should be appointed to evaluate this form of elder abuse. Additionally, her son should be charged with physical elder abuse. This form of abuse is very direct because the evidence, which has been brought forward, is very direct. Lastly, the son can be charged committing assault on his mother. This is where he beats her mother intentionally. This elder abuse usually contains some effects, which affects the victims. In this case, the elderly woman is the victim of the case, she is very much affected by the situation to appoint where, and when she is telling the story, she burst into tears. This elderly woman has undergone serious emotional stress where she leaves in fear in her on home. Additionally, the woman is in shock because she cannot believe that her own son who she has brought up into a grown young man can beat her up without even having any feelings for her (LeDuff, 1997). Lastly, the old woman is very much affected because the people who are supposed to be protecting her and taking care of her have neglected her. Therefore, the old woman will continue to stay in constant fear not unless she gets medical help. References Elder abuse foundation, (April 20, 2011). Forms of Elder Abuse. Elder Abuse Foundation. Retrieved from: http://www.elder-abuse-foundation.com/html/forms.html Emedicinehealth, (April 20, 2011). Child Abuse. WebMD Inc. Retrieved from: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/child_abuse/article_em.htm LeDuff, C., (August 24, 1997). Facing Up to Elder Abuse. The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/1997/08/24/nyregion/facing-up-to-elder-abuse.html?src=pm Robbins, L. (April 6, 2011). Morning the short life of a beaten toddler. The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/07/nyregion/07funeral.html?_r=1ref=childabuseandneglect child abuse and elder abuse Essay Example child abuse and elder abuse Essay Child Abuse and Elder Abuse Child Abuse Child abuse is any abnormal behavior, which is directed towards a child and it usually takes many forms. The different forms of child abuse are child sexual abuse, pedophilia, physical abuse, child neglect, emotional neglect and failure to thrive. Most of these forms of child abuse could be very direct while the others are not very direct. Therefore, the forms that are not direct usually require a person who is not biased of anything and qualified to prove that there is child abuse (Emedicinehealth, 2011). We will write a custom essay sample on child abuse and elder abuse specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on child abuse and elder abuse specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on child abuse and elder abuse specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The article Ã¢â¬Å"Morning the Life of a Beaten ToddlerÃ¢â¬ describes a case of a child abuse, which was very horrific. It was a form of physical abuse where the foster mother companion of the child, Mrs. Oliver, beat her child who later died in the hospital. Mrs. Oliver was the companion of Ms Cummings who was the foster mother of the child. Mrs. Oliver used a metal rod or baseball bat to beat the child, who was eighteen months old, known as Louis Dewayne Mosely. The child, Mosely, sustained several injuries, which led to his death. Ã¢â¬Å"According to the police, Mosely, had been left in the care of Mr. Oliver, by Ms Cummings, the foster mother, in her apartment in Cypress Hill, BrooklynÃ¢â¬ (Robbins, 2011). The most shocking part of the incident was that the child was only eighteen months and that he did not know anything and additionally, the child was very helpless, that is, he could defend himself from the activity. The form of child abuse, which was involved in this case, was physical abuse. This kind of abuse was very direct and the parent, Kysheen Oliver, intended to beat her child. Although, the reasons for beating her child are not yet known, there is no reason, which the mother can give to justify the acts of committing the horrific act of beating her child to death. It was clear that the mother used an object like that of a metal rod or a baseball bat to perform the physical abuse to the small child who was very helpless. In conjunction to the physical abuse of the child as form of child abuse, the foster mother also committed murder in the first degree. The medical examiners gave very conclusive results on how the boy died (Robbins, 2011). The boy died from injuries of the physical abuse, which were inflicted by the foster mother. Additionally, it can be said that the mother was not acting in defense of her dear life because she was beating a helpless child who did not understand what was happening and neither did the child have the ability to protect himself from the beating. To make matters worse the mother used an object to beat the small innocent boy. Therefore, the mother will have to answer on charges of child abuse in the form of physical abuse and committing murder. This kind of child abuse has affected several people who have been the victims of the death of the child. First, if the boy survived the physical abuse, he would have been affected very much. The boy would have grown up in fear and this could have even led to post-traumatic stress disorder due to the kind of physical abuse or violence that he has experienced in his life at that young age. Additionally, the social life of that boy could have been ruined because he would have lacked confidence in himself leading to him becoming a loner. However, since the young boy died, the victims of this physical abuse were the different people who attended the funeral and the foster father of the child, Mr. Oliver. First, Mr. Oliver has been hit by a lot of shock in disbelief due to the kind of abuse committed by his wife. He does not believe that his own wife whom he loved and trusted with their child could ever commit such a horrific crime towards their child. He has been affected emotionally and this will never live his mind. Additionally, the people who attended the funeral were hit by disbelief and they were emotionally disturbed that somebody could beat up a helpless child to death. However, it should not be forgotten that the mother of the child needs serious medical attention. Elder Abuse Elder abuse can be defined as any type harm, which is directed towards the older people. There are very many forms of elder abuse, which can be charged in a court of law. These forms of elder abuse are physical elder abuse, mental elder abuse, elder abuse neglect, and exploitation/financial elder abuse (Elder abuse foundation, 2011). They could be also direct or indirect where they need a person who is not biased and is very professional in determining whether there has been a form of elder abuse. It is worth noting that elder abuse occurs to those people who are elderly like the grandfathers and grandmothers. An example of a good case is in the article Ã¢â¬Å"Facing Up to Elder Abuse,Ã¢â¬ which was in the New York Times. The case is about an elderly person who was being abused by her own son. The elder woman, Anne DeBraw, describes the abuse, which has being going on for a couple of years (LeDuff, 1997). She remembers one incident when she was walking home and heard the footsteps of the prowler her roof. It was very dark and therefore, she could not clearly see who it was. Suddenly the prowler jumped from the roof towards her and attacked her. When the elderly woman is giving her story, she burst into tears because of the way she has been so terrified of the prowler and yet she could do nothing because the prowler was her own son (LeDuff, 1997). The prowler used to beat her and inflict injuries on her body. This had being going on for quite some time and she used to stay in fear without any help in her own home. The form of elder abuse involved in the case is physical elder abuse. The prowler has been attacking the elderly woman, his mother, by beating her up and causing physical bodily harm. The woman is about seventy-nine years old, making it a form of elder abuse. It makes it an elderly abuse because the prowler did this intentionally and the old woman did not provoke her in doing this. The most horrific thing is that the prowler beat up his biological mother causing injuries without even caring for her or having any feelings. On the same case, another form of elder abuse is the elder abuse neglect. The son shows this where he has neglected his own mother to the point of beating her up (LeDuff, 1997). This means that the son does not care about her mother in the fact that she is not able to do some of the things that she used to do to him when she was taking care of him as a child. Instead of helping her, he continuously beat her without any reason. This kind of neglect is the one that is making the elderly woman not to be able in protecting herself or even going forward and reporting this to the police. This is because the person who was supposed to be protecting her as neglected her and instead he is beating her up. Therefore, in a court of law, her son should be charged with elder abuse neglect because of the kind of treatment he accords to her own mother. To some point of view, it might be direct therefore, a professional person should be appointed to evaluate this form of elder abuse. Additionally, her son should be charged with physical elder abuse. This form of abuse is very direct because the evidence, which has been brought forward, is very direct. Lastly, the son can be charged committing assault on his mother. This is where he beats her mother intentionally. This elder abuse usually contains some effects, which affects the victims. In this case, the elderly woman is the victim of the case, she is very much affected by the situation to appoint where, and when she is telling the story, she burst into tears. This elderly woman has undergone serious emotional stress where she leaves in fear in her on home. Additionally, the woman is in shock because she cannot believe that her own son who she has brought up into a grown young man can beat her up without even having any feelings for her (LeDuff, 1997). Lastly, the old woman is very much affected because the people who are supposed to be protecting her and taking care of her have neglected her. Therefore, the old woman will continue to stay in constant fear not unless she gets medical help. References Elder abuse foundation, (April 20, 2011). Forms of Elder Abuse. Elder Abuse Foundation. Retrieved from: http://www.elder-abuse-foundation.com/html/forms.html Emedicinehealth, (April 20, 2011). Child Abuse. WebMD Inc. Retrieved from: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/child_abuse/article_em.htm LeDuff, C., (August 24, 1997). Facing Up to Elder Abuse. The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/1997/08/24/nyregion/facing-up-to-elder-abuse.html?src=pm Robbins, L. (April 6, 2011). Morning the short life of a beaten toddler. The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/07/nyregion/07funeral.html?_r=1ref=childabuseandneglect
Sunday, November 24, 2019
The Principles of Animalism Essays The Principles of Animalism Paper The Principles of Animalism Paper Essay Topic: Literature The Principles of Animalism are the set of principles devised by Old Major in Animal Farm that all the animals are expected to live up to and follow. These include complete equality among the animals, and a rejection of human ways. During the tale, we see these principles progressively subverted by the pigs for their own agenda, which is to assume complete control of Animal Farm, while encouraging the other animals to believe that the equality still exists. Squealer, as the propagandist on behalf of the pigs, and the sheep and dogs as groups utilised by Napoleon to advance his ause, are used by the pigs to destroy Old Majors idealism. Squealer is used by Napoleon as a spin-doctor, to manipulate the truth and deceive the other creatures. We can see an example of this when the pigs start to subvert the principle of equality, and decide to keep the apples and milk to themselves. Obviously this arouses the animals because they are just about clever enough to see that this is not fair, and that the pigs are being greedy. However, Squealer is sent by the pigs to quell any unrest that might be brewing: Comrades! he cried. You do not imagine, I hope, that we pigs are oing this in a spirit of selfishness and privilege? Of course, this is exactly what the animals think, but when they are confronted in such a straightforward manner, with such a reproving tone behind the question, they cannot really reply, which gives Squealer the chance to begin his lies, which the animals believe just because they can acknowledge the fact that the pigs are cleverer than themselves. This use of a rhetorical question is Squealers main technique against the animals, as this type of question hides a threat of disapproval if answered, and so makes answer impossible: It was almost unbelievable, said Squealer, that any animal could be so stupid. Surely, he cried indignantly, whisking his tail and skipping from side to side, surely they knew their beloved Leader, Comrade Napoleon, better than that? Once he has thus silenced the animals, Squealer, can go on to say anything that he wishes to persuade them that everything is fine. Squealer will also support his rhetorical questions with a statement to make the animals feel guilty and shamed for ever doubting the pigs motives. Not only do they then drop their arguments, but they will take up a different train of thought ntirely: It is for your sake that we drink that milk and eat those apples. Now, as well as not being able to continue arguing, the animals will also have the new sense of gratification towards the pigs for their protection, thus making them less likely to argue in the future. Squealer is extremely clever, and so can exploit any of the animals weaknesses. One of these is their fear of the return of Jones who for them symbolises all the oppression that they were under in the past. By threatening the return of Jones, Squealer can make the animals more passive in their attitudes because in their minds Jones is the ultimate symbol of oppression and fear: surely there is no one among you who wants to see Jones come back? Now if there was one thing that the animals were completely certain of, it was that they did not want Jones back. Looking at their situation in such a light, the animals can romanticise that whatever is happening in their lives now, it cant be as bad as when they had no equality under Jones: But they were happy in their work; they grudged no effort or sacrifice, well aware that everything that they did was for the benefit of themselves False logic and facts are techniques that Squealer can use when talking to support what he is saying, but only because the animals are not educated. For example, he uses facts from subjects that they would clearly know nothing about because they cannot read. The animals have acknowledged the pigs intelligence over them, so they are prone to believe that the pigs know what they are talking about when in fact they do not, but are bluffing: Milk and apples (this has been proved by Science, comrades) contain substances absolutely necessary to the well-being of a pig. We pigs are brain-workers. Of course the animals have no basis or education to argue with Science, and so now in their minds, The importance of keeping the pigs in good health was all too obvious. The false logic that Squealer uses is often preposterous to the reader, as we can see where it breaks down and becomes sheer nonsense: A too rigid equality in rations, Squealer explained, would have been contrary to the principles of Animalism. However the animals are not able to make the same judgement because they have not developed completely logical thought yet. Often they need time to be able to gather heir thoughts, which Squealer does not give them by making his speeches long and conclusive. What makes Squealer such a good propagandist is his ability to control the animals thoughts by what he is saying. Nervous little skips from side to side, giving the appearance of anxiousness, is part of his act when he wants the animals to sense importance. In a way he acts as a bridge between the pigs and the animals, as he is pretending to be on their own level, while really just acting. He can make them believe this by calling them Comrades. He instils the trust in them, and then can xploit their belief in his truthfulness: Reading out the figures in a shrill, rapid voice, he proved to them in detail The animals believed every word of it. Whatever else is happening, and no matter how much the other pigs are distancing themselves, the animals will always trust Squealer to be giving them honest information. Napoleon uses the sheep to cause confusion and disrupt the animals train of thought. This is centred around their ability to be taught something and then repeat it for as long as desired. Because of a complete lack of intelligence on their part, they do ot actually have their own opinions on any matter, and even to teach them simple phrases takes its time. They are very useful though in quashing any signs of rebellion on the part of the animals, because they simply do not allow anyone to have any form of say by the sheer amount of noise they create: Frightened though they were, some of the animals might possibly have protested, but at this moment the sheep set up their usual bleating of Four legs good, two legs bad, which put an end to the discussion. The use of the sheep is here timed to perfection so that the animals have no way of rotesting against what the pigs are doing. This routine is thoroughly well planned by Napoleon so that he can do whatever he wishes without having to use Squealer or force (or in fact when he cant use Squealer, as when the pigs begin to walk on their hind legs- because they are now acting above the animals, Squealer is no longer a bridge). The sheep use simple slogans such as Four legs good, two legs bad, which are easy to remember and can be repeated over and over ad infinitum. In this way they usurp the animals right to free speech by denying them the opportunity to speak out. The timing of their bleating is co-ordinated by the pigs via secret signals and therefore disguised as coincidence. It was noticed that they were especially liable to break into Four legs good, two legs bad at the crucial moments in Snowballs speeches. The animals never realise that the pigs are controlling the sheep, it seems to them like chance whether the sheep will start bleating or not. They become accustomed to the sheep breaking in to calm any tensions: Then, as usual, the sheep broke into Four legs good, two legs bad! and the momentary awkwardness was smoothed over. This is the reason that the sheep are so successful in disruption; the animals are not aware that their timing has been orchestrated, and so do not realise that they will start their bleating at crucial moments. If they did they might be able to keep their key arguments in mind and then take up the issue at anothe r time. The other group of animals without any opinion is the dogs, who were taken away at birth by Napoleon to be secretly trained to respond to his command. They are very vicious, and seen by the other animals as being creatures who are completely nknown and alien. They quickly become the enforcement of order by brutal means, often killing, and so the animals quickly become afraid of them just as they are of humans. They attend the pigs wherever they go and prevent any form of argument with the threat of violence: But suddenly the dogs sitting round Napoleon let out deep, menacing growls, and the pigs fell silent and sat down again. Here the animals with the most chance of formulating an effective protest, some young pigs, are stopped in their protests at not being able to debate the running of the arm any more (the removal of free will from the animals) by the threat of force from the dogs. These same pigs are later targeted when the dogs serve a new purpose in executing animals who are apparently traitors to Animal Farm. The dogs influence quickly grows until they are on a par with the pigs in terms of importance and stature: Once again all rations were reduced, except those of the pigs and dogs. The dogs are needed in full health by Napoleon so that they can be a guarding escort for the important pigs, but they are more than that because they are Napoleons ersonal protection elite as well, and so hold more weight than a normal guard force would. They also start to help supervise the running of the farm, highlighting their difference to the other animals (they are not just being used): The dogs saw to it that these orders were carried out. The dogs are shown to be devoid of any personality, which contributes to the animals fear of them as it enforces their alien nature; they are thoughtless beings that exhibit no signs of compassion. When they kill, the animals are firstly horrified, but come to realise that they are easily capable of such things, and so a threat. Napoleon uses the dogs as a threatening force, a protection service and to get rid of potential troublemakers. These troublemakers are dispatched with intention, however there are also random killings that cause the animals much fear and distress. These random executions that begin are just a way of making all the animals live in fear of stepping out of line and of the dogs (their ruthlessness in killing their own kind is shocking to the animals). This fear means that they never dare to do anything other than go along with the pigs, because they know it will probably result in death for eing a traitor. All in all, the pigs use many methods with which to subvert the principles of Animalism. The use of fear is key to controlling the animals, and is used by both the dogs and Squealer, but in different ways; Squealer uses words to scare the animals into submission, while the dogs actually hold a force which they demonstrate regularly. Another method is that which is employed by the sheep, which is on the whole very different, yet very effective. By means of creating noise in the form of a repeated slogan, the sheep confuse the animals thoughts, and remove the opportunity or debate or argument. All of this goes towards making the animals passive in preparation for the final subversion of Animalism; the final great shift where the pigs make the transition from the animal to the human, the very same force that the animals strived to defeat and against whom they gained their independance in the first place (this shift meaning that all that the animals have done is worth nothing, as they are back where they started, perhaps with even less, as now they have no hope with which to console themselves; everything has been removed form them).
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Sources of finance - Essay Example As you grow, you may need to turn to alternate sources such as Venture Capital. Once you have achieved a financial track record, you can turn to other sources such as Asset Based Lending or Commercial Loans. The main sources of financing can be divided into: Roger Inman can use cash for his purchase of new computer or the following sources of financing, such as a small loan(notes payable), buy a computer on accounts payable (in this case computer company would have to finance the purchase). Or another solution would be to lease a computer. A firm can raise money for working capital by selling bonds, bills, or notes to individual and/or institutional investors. In return for lending the money, the individuals or institutions become creditors and receive a promise that the principal and interest on the debt will be repaid. First of all it is difficult to answer, because we do not know in which industry the company is, therefore we can not say what the optimal capital structure is. So, making a few assumptions, next sources of financing can be used: E) Euro Tunnel suffered trading losses in its first year of operation. If the company wanted to maintain its gearing ratio at the same level as previous year, what type of finance would it have to raise As the company is suffering losses it implies that retained earnings are going down, resulting in equity decrease, so the gearing rate is going up. In order to keep the leverage rate at the level of previous year, new issues should be issued in order to counterbalance the losses that a company is currently making. F) Carlton Holdings PLC has a
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Telehealth Nursing - Research Paper Example While teleconferencing or telepsychiatry is generally administered for individuals living in remote locations, it has also been noted to be effective in emergency situations. The current situation is indicative of such a high area need. In establishing the steps that must be taken to arrange a successful psychiatric teleconference the nurse or medical professional must first make an assessment of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s immediate psychiatric need. While the scenario has indicated that the individual has clear psychiatric problems, the extent of these issues is not indicated. In the situation that the patient is able to have control over their actions and make sound decisions then less oversight needs be taken in the interaction between the patient and the psychiatrist. However, if the patient has demonstrated a complete lack of self-care and serious mental impairment, then it will be necessary for the nurse or caregiver to remain present during the teleconference. Ã Ã The medical r oom must adhere to patient privacy issues. Even as the situation is an out-of-the ordinary emergency situation, the hospital should have established a teleconferencing room where the patient can speak with the psychiatrist with the feeling of privacy and security. While security is important to the patient for personal matters, itÃ¢â¬â¢s also essential to quality psychiatric care in that the patient may be unwilling to disclose needed personal information if they do not feel secure in the teleconferencing environment.Ã In these regards the nursing professional becomes responsible for creating the proper environment of communication and maintaining the professional nature of the psychiatric meeting based on the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s specific psychiatric condition. The next stage of securing an effective telehealth conference is to make contact with the Tri-State health institute. It is unknown whether St. TheresaÃ¢â¬â¢s have previously investigated the infrastructure elements of th e Tri-State medical establishment of developed a working scenario for situations such as these, but in the instance they havenÃ¢â¬â¢t appropriate measures must be taken to establish appropriate connections to achieve optimum efficiency and professionalism. Within this context the nurse must act as a go-between with the two medical establishments. After the nursing professional has established communication with the Tri-State institute itÃ¢â¬â¢s necessary to communicate with the institute the situation. The nurse must then work to establish a timeframe for the psychiatrist to meet with the emergency patient. While telehealth is a relatively new field and approach to medical care, itÃ¢â¬â¢s still necessary for the nurse to approach the medical conference as they would a traditional doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s appointment. In these regards, after connection has been made with the psychiatrist the patient should be told to wait for the appointment time. In the mean time the room should be
Monday, November 18, 2019
ECG Compliance Officer - Essay Example According to the paper leaders also tend to think outwards on how their policies and ideas impact the society in the sense perspective. Managers on the other hand focus on things. For example, the major concern of a retail manager is whether the merchandise is moving and not about the people doing the work. They also have a myopic view of attaining the targets set and do not have the bigger picture. In terms of goal setting, leadership entails the articulation of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s vision. The purpose of leaders is to give their followers a reason to do something and show the followers the way to the future. Essentially, leader sees the bigger picture and rallies the followers in an effort to attain it. The role of a manager is to execute plans and strive to improve the present situation in the organization. Simply put, a manager is focused on the present situation and sees the tree rather than the forest. The type of governance that is implemented also shows remarkable differ ences between leaders and managers. A manager uses authority to govern the people that he/she manages. They use their position to get things done. Also, managers avoid conflicts in their organization since they feel conflicts threaten their power. In handling issues, a manager is bound to act in a responsible manner. On the contrary, leaders use influence to govern people. In fact, leaders do not need a title in order to execute their plans. Leaders use conflicts to create tighter bonds with their followers and move forward in unison. When matters of concern arise, a leader acts decisively to solve the issue immediately with the information available. Employee relations are a pointer to whether a person is a leader or a manager. Managers aim to control the staff that they are in charge of and consider them their subordinates. As previously indicated, managers are title oriented and thus endeavor exercise authority at all times. Managers tend to specialize in directing and coordinati ng the people they are in charge of. This paper highlights that the hallmark of leadership is empowering people to do their work. Leaders recognize their followers as colleagues and they commit to developing relationships of mutual respect and trust with them. The other unique role of leadership is to create change. Leaders are tasked with ushering people they lead into new realms of uncharted territories. To achieve this, leaders learn to do the right things as the world of change is full of uncertainties. Also, leaders serve the people they lead by putting the interests of the followers ahead of theirs. Managers run their operations by perfecting the skill of managing change. Their role is to do the right the right things after they have been given a brief. The managers endeavor to serve the wishes of their superiors at all times to ensure that their bosses are happy and satisfied at whatever costs . The organization is about to go public through an Initial Public Offering (IPO) a nd acquire a new company which will lead to the creation of a new department.Ã
Friday, November 15, 2019
Pathophysiology of Liver Diseases ONG SUAN LING Liver Failure The liver is responsible for regulatory, detoxification, metabolic and synthetic activities. Liver cell known as hepatocyte, is responsible for about 500 or more specific biologic processes . Liver failure occurs when large parts of the liver become damaged and the liver is dysfunction . Liver failure occurs over many years and gradually. However, the acute liver failure is difficult to detect initially and occurs rapidly (as rapid as 48 hours) . Chronic liver failure is caused by excessive alcohol intake, Hepatitis B or C, malnutrition, Hemochromatosis (body absorb and store too much iron) and cirrhosis (irreversible inflammatory disease) . Figure 1 show the stages of liver damage which eventually lead to cirrhosis. Liver Hepatitis Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C is the most common hepatitis which can lead to the liver damage caused by their chronic forms. Viral hepatitis is cleared from the body in a period ranging from weeks to months, by the immune system but when it is not as seen in chronic hepatitis, the disease must be managed medically . Hepatitis can also be brought on by excess alcohol consumption or inherited (congenital hepatitis). When hepatitis left untreated, it can damage the liver over many years, eventually resulting in cirrhosis . Liver Cirrhosis Cirrhosis is a condition in which normal, healthy hepatocyte are damaged and replaced by nodular and fibrotic tissue. A cirrhosis-damaged liver can cause decreased hepatic function and widespread disruption of many body functions . For cirrhosis, the biliary channels become obstructed and caused portal hypertension. The hypoxic necrosis is developed as a result of blood circulation is shunted away from the liver (due to neovascularisation)  Figure 2 shows the normal appearance of the cells of the liver, compared to cells of cirrhotic livers. Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) Hepatopulmonary syndrome is the clinical relationship between hepatic dysfunction and the existence of pulmonary vascular dilatation which can result in a range of arterial oxygenation abnormalities . HPS is defined by the presence of chronic liver disease; abnormal arterial oxygenation or an arterial partial pressure of oxygen in the absence of an alternate cause; and evidence of intrapulmonary vascular dilatations (IPVDs)  Pathophysiology Hepatopulmonary syndrome occurs mostly in patients who have established cirrhosis and portal hypertension . From a pathophysiological point of view, abnormal intrapulmonary vascular dilatation is linked to portal hypertension, which in itself leads to altered bowel perfusion and an increased rate of enteral translocation of gram-negative bacteria and endotoxin. This process in turn stimulates the release of vasoactive mediators, which include tumour necrosis factor, haem-oxygenase-derived carbon monoxide, and nitric oxide. The increased production of nitric oxide in the lung plays a central part in the pathogenesis of the hepatopulmonary syndrome . Increased concentrations of exhaled nitric oxide are positively correlated with the increase of alveoloarterial oxygen difference. The constitutive and the inducible isoforms of nitricoxide synthase have been implicated in this process. In addition, the endothelin system, especially abnormal activation and increased expression of endothelial type B endothelin receptors, is implicated in the pathogenesis of the hepatopulmonary syndrome . In patients who have pulmonary hypertension, endothelin predominantly exerts vasoconstrictive and mitogenic effects due to activation of type A and type B endothelin receptors on pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells . (Refer to figure 3) Figure 3 show in presence of portal hypertension, hepatic production occurs of endothelin-1 and expression of endothelial type B receptors, but no type A receptors increase in pulmonary vasculature. Signaling via endothelially expressed endothelin B receptor leads to increase NO production by eNOS, with the overall effect of pulmonary vascular dilatation. Below is how defective synthesis and metabolism of pulmonary vasoactive substance lead to intrapulmonary Vasodilation. Due to the vasodilation and development of shunt, the blood flow is not uniform leading to ventilatation-pefusion mismatch and also restricts the oxygen molecules to reach the centre of the capillaries and hemoglobin in the erythrocyte . (Refer to figure 4) Figure 4: Ventilation-perfusion mismatches the oxygen reach the capillaries and blood. The nonuniform perfusion blood flow may lead to the formation of functional intrapulmonary vascular dilations which is the major cause of hypoxemia and the defining feature of HPS . The hyperdynamic circulation as well as the increased cardiac output which associated with liver disease reduces the transit time of blood in the lung vasculature, thus the time available for the oxygen diffusion is reduced. This in turn contributes to the hypoxemia . HPS also caused a decreased arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) as a result of the inability of oxygen molecules to diffuse to the center of the dilated pulmonary capillaries to oxygenate the haemoglobin in the erythrocytes . Figure 5 shows illustration of precapillary pulmonary vascular dilatations. On the other hand, the increasing of alveolar PO2 with supplement oxygen may increase the blood arterial PO2 and improve the hypoxemia . HPS patients have been reported to have decreased pulmonary vascular resistance and decreased hypoxic pulmonary vascular constriction . Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is generally occurs in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension . HRS is characterised by major disturbances in circulatory function and renal failure . Intense vasoconstriction of the renal circulation has resulted in renal failure . The HRS is the final consequence of extreme underfilling of the arterial circulation secondary to arterial vasodilatation in the splanchnic vascular bed [10, 11]. The principle abnormality in the systemic circulation is low arterial pressure caused by greatly reduced total systemic vascular resistance . The prognosis remains poor, particularly when there is rapidly progressive renal failure . HRS occurs in the setting of cirrhosis predominantly, but it can also be developed in other types of chronic liver disease like alcoholic hepatitis. Figure 6: Proposed pathogenesis of HRS in cirrhosis, according to the arterial vasodilatation  The mechanism of HRS is vasoconstriction of the renal circulation is multifactorial, involving disturbance in the activity and circulatory function of systemic and renal vasoactive mechanisms . There is severe arterial underfilling in the systemic circulation which is related to the portal hypertension . The arterial underfilling is caused by the vasodilatation of the splanchnic circulation related to increased splanchnic production of vasodilator substances, particularly nitric oxide . The increased activity of the vasoconstrictor systems caused greatly reduce in renal perfusion and GFR however tubular function is preserved [13,14,16]. The vasoconstrictor system has resulted in the retention in free water (arginine vasopressin) and retention in sodium (renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous system) that occurs in advanced cirrhosis [15, 16]. In the early phases of decompensated cirrhosis, increased synthesis of renal vasodilator factors (mainly prostaglandins) caused maintenance of renal perfusion within the normal range because of . In later phases of the disorder, renal perfusion cannot be maintained because maximum activation of vasoconstrictor systems caused by the extreme arterial underfilling, has decreased production of renal vasodilator factors, or both, and lead to HRS developement . The activation of vasoconstrictor systems also results in vasoconstriction of some vascular beds other than the kidneys, including the legs, arms and brain. Due to the greatly increased local production of vasodilators, the splanchnic area escapes the effect of vasconstrictors . References Webmd.com. (2014).Liver failure causes, symptoms, treatments, tests more. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/digestive-diseases-liver-failure [Accessed: 11 Jan 2014]. Vitaltherapies.com. (2014).Liver disease | vital therapies. [online] Retrieved from: http://vitaltherapies.com/liver-disease/ [Accessed: 11 Jan 2014]. Hn632campus.wikispaces.com. 2014.HN632campus Cirrhosis. [online] Available at: https://hn632campus.wikispaces.com/Cirrhosis [Accessed: 11 Jan 2014]. Buob, S., Johnston, A. N., Webster, C. R. L. (2011). Portal hypertension: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine,25(2), 169-186. Livermd.org. (2014).Hepatitis cirrhosis. [online] Retrieved from: http://livermd.org/hepatitis.html [Accessed: 11 Jan 2014]. Krowka, M. J., Cortese, D. A. (1994). Hepatopulmonary syndrome. Current concepts in diagnostic and therapeutic considerations.CHEST Journal,105(5), 1528-1537. Fritz, J. S., Fallon, M. B., Kawut, S. M. (2013). Pulmonary Vascular Complications of Liver Disease.American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine,187(2), 133-143 Hoeper, M. M., Krowka, M. J., Strassburg, C. P. (2004). Portopulmonary hypertension and hepatopulmonary syndrome.The Lancet,363(9419), 1461-1468 Zhang, J., Fallon, M. B. (2012). Hepatopulmonary syndrome: update on pathogenesis and clinical features.Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology,9(9), 539-549. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. (2014).Hepatorenal syndrome national library of medicine pubmed health. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001519/ [Accessed: 12 Jan 2014]. Emedicine.medscape.com. (2014).Medscape: medscape access. [online] Retrieved from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/178208-overview#a0104 [Accessed: 11 Jan 2014]. GinÃ ¨s, P., Guevara, M., Arroyo, V., RodÃ ©s, J. (2003). Hepatorenal syndrome.The Lancet,362(9398), 1819-1827. Arroyo, V., GinÃ ¨s, P., Gerbes, A. L., Dudley, F. J., Gentilini, P., Laffi, G., SchÃ ¶lmerich, J. (1996). Definition and diagnostic criteria of refractory ascites and hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis.Hepatology,23(1), 164-176. Arroyo, V., Guevara, M., GinÃ ¨s, P. (2002). Hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis: pathogenesis and treatment.Gastroenterology,122(6), 1658-1676. Schrier, R. W., Arroyo, V., Bernardi, M., Epstein, M., Henriksen, J. H., RodÃ ©s, J. (1988). Peripheral arterial vasodilation hypothesis: a proposal for the initiation of renal sodium and water retention in cirrhosis.Hepatology,8(5), 1151-1157. Schrier, R. W., Niederberger, M., Weigert, A., GinÃ ¨s, P. (1994). Peripheral arterial vasodilatation: determinant of functional spectrum of cirrhosis. InSeminars in liver disease(Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 14-22). Martin, P. Y., GinÃ ¨s, P., Schrier, R. W. (1998). Nitric oxide as a mediator of hemodynamic abnormalities and sodium and water retention in cirrhosis.New England Journal of Medicine,339(8), 533-541. Angeli, P., Merkel, C. (2008). Pathogenesis and management of hepatorenal syndrome in patients with cirrhosis.Journal of hepatology,48, S93-S103.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Banquo - a Spiritual Force in Macbeth Ã Ã Ã Ã Who cannot learn from Shakespeare's Macbeth this moral lesson: That crime does not pay? And who can deny that the playwright created a spiritual force in the play in the person of Banquo? This essay is his story. Ã Lily B. Campbell in her volume of criticism, Shakespeare's Tragic Heroes: Slaves of Passion, discusses how fear enters the life of Banquo with the murder of Duncan and his two attendants: Ã And as Lady Macbeth is helped from the room, we see fear working in the others. Banquo admits that fears and scruples shake them all, even while he proclaims his enmity to treason. But Banquo fears rightly the anger or hatred of the Macbeth who has power to do him harm. (222) Ã In Shakespeare and Tragedy John Bayley discusses Banquo shortly before his murder: Ã [. . .] like Banquo, who, in the tense hour before the murder, expresses in more forceful form the idea of evil speculation and possibility as ranging in the mind: Ã Merciful powers, Restrain in me the cursed thoughts that nature Gives way to in repose. II.i.7-9 Ã At such a moment the activities of the mind become almost palpable and express themselves in bodily form, as they do in the other two mind tragedies. In the speech which he imagines the thoughts that may come to him when he goes to rest, Banquo hands his sword to his son Fleance, and then - with a dream-like precision - hands over his belt with its dagger too: Ã Hold, take my sword. There's husbandry in heaven; Their candles are all out. Take thee that too. (188-89) Ã Clark and Wright in their Introduction to The Complete Works of William Shakespeare comment that Banquo is a force of good in the play, set in opposition to Macbeth: Ã Banquo, the loyal soldier, praying for restraint against evil thoughts which enter his mind as they had entered Macbeth's, but which work no evil there, is set over against Macbeth, as virtue is set over against disloyalty.Ã (792) Ã In Fools of Time: Studies in Shakespearean Tragedy, Northrop Frye explains the rationale behind Banquo's ghost in this play: Ã Except for the episode of Hercules leaving Antony, where mysterious music is heard again, there is nothing really supernatural in Shakespeare's tragedies that is not connected with the murder of the order-figures.