Saturday, August 31, 2019

Cultural Relativism: A Way of Life Essay

â€Å"If you are my baby, it don’t matter if you’re black or white.† These words reverberate in my mind as I heard the news about Michael Jackson’s death. His song, Black or White is one of my favorites because it talks about a father’s acceptance of his child despite the baby’s color. Later, when I encountered the term cultural relativism in school, I understood better what the song wants to promote, and how this can be accomplished. Cultural relativism is commonly known as the practice of accepting and living harmoniously with people of different cultures. If we observe our society today, we will notice different kinds of people—Africans, Caucasians, Asians, Latinos, and a lot of mixtures coexist. Cultural relativism is what allows them to live in peace with each other, to accept and respect other cultures like they do their own. Considering the present scenario, we may say that cultural relativism is not just a practice or aspect of life, it is already a way of life, a must for every person to live and prosper. Ideally, a society that adheres to cultural relativism allows the existence and exchange of different cultures. Although this has not been fully realized in many places, we can guarantee that it is already a common aspect of the learning environment. In school, students get the chance to interact with others, and discover aspects of different cultures. Everyday interaction with Asians, African-Americans, and Latin Americans allows us to see that after all, it is not difficult to coexist with different people. Often, all we need is to provide opportunities for interaction and sharing. Specifically, in my dealings with different cultures, I learned to appreciate the hard work of the Chinese, the ingenuity of the Japanese, the friendliness of Filipinos, the family values of the Latinos, and the cool attitude of the African-Americans. Cultural relativism has helped me appreciate different cultures, and allowed me to grow more maturely. To practice cultural relativism, I personally follow three steps. First, I try to analyze why people are behaving the way they do. I rely on my background knowledge to analyze the situation. Next, I observe and see the positive effects of their practice, and third, I try to find more information about the practice by inquiring from the person or researching online. For example, seeing the Chinese sip the soup out of the bowl without using spoon initially made me felt indifferent. However, in applying cultural relativism, I tried to analyze why they do this instead of using a spoon. Then, I realized that the Chinese use chopsticks instead of spoon, making it impossible to have the soup without sipping it directly from the bowl. Also, one time I encountered a Japanese documentary showing a man perfecting a sword. He seemed mindless of the fire he used to shape the sword, and from there I wondered why the Japanese give such importance to swords when guns are more reliable for protection. Due to this, I searched the Internet for answers, and found out that perfecting swords is part of the Japanese Samurai culture, the military men in the history of Japan. I learned that the Samurais treat swords as their companion in battle, and swords serve as representations of them. Therefore, a Samurai’s sword should be well-kept at all times because it is a family inheritance and symbol of honor. Knowledge of others’ culture definitely helps us understand and appreciate them. However, there are also practices which I believe I cannot accept even though I already have a good grasp of cultural relativism. One of these is the suicide killing done by 9/11 hijackers. Unlike the Japanese version of suicide which hopes to express a person’s regret for a mistake committed, suicide killing among the Muslims intends to kill non-Muslims on the bases of religious and political conflicts. What makes it truly wrong is killing innocent people for some selfish intent. Considering this, cultural relativism becomes a difficult aspect of reality, similar to pushing a child to swallow a whole fresh egg straight to the stomach.

Friday, August 30, 2019

The Efficacy of Malunggay

Chapter I Introduction A. Background of the Study Malunggay is a popular plant that is dubbed â€Å"miracle tree† or â€Å"natures medicine cabinet† by scientists and health care workers worldwide because of its proven nutritional benefits as well as, reported medical properties. In the Philippines Malunggay is widely cultivated and can be found in the backyard of many Filipino homes. It is a low-maintenance plant. It can grow in almost any kind of soil and is drought resistant. The Malunggays main values are as source of nutrients.Its medicinal properties are limited and mostly unproven. It also helps to control blood pressure, relieves headaches and migraines. Blood clotting, or coagulation, is an important process that prevents excessive bleeding when a blood vessel is injured. Platelets (a type of blood cell) and proteins in your plasma (the liquid part of blood) work together to stop the bleeding by forming a clot over the injury. Typically, your body will naturall y dissolve the blood clot after the injury has healed.Sometimes, however, clots form on the inside of vessels without an obvious injury or do not dissolve naturally. These situations can be dangerous and require accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Clots can occur in veins or arteries, which are vessels that are part of the body’s circulatory system. While both types of vessels help transport blood throughout the body, they each function differently. Veins are low-pressure vessels that carry deoxygenated blood away from the body’s organs and back to the heart.An abnormal clot that forms in a vein may restrict the return of blood to the heart and can result in pain and swelling as the blood gathers behind the clot. B. Objectives: The study aimed to determine the efficacy of Malunggay leaves (Moringa Oleifera) leaves extract in increasing the platelet count of albino mice. Specifically, it aimed to compare the platelet counts of these mice given doses of the pla nt extract before and after the treatments. C. Hypothesis: The study is guided by the following hypotheses:Null: That Malunggay leaves (Moringa Oleifera) decoction is as significant as the control in increasing the platelet count of albino mice. Alternative: There is a significant difference of the Malunggay leaves (Moringa Oleifera) and the control in increasing the platelet count of the albino mice. D. Significance of the study: (talk on how Malunggay can increase the platelet count) E. Scope and limitation: The scope of the study is limited to the extraction of Malunggay leaves and administration of the extract in mice in different doses. The platelet is the main blood cell under investigation.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

The newly hired pharmacist Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The newly hired pharmacist - Case Study Example The Relevant Issues For decades some pharmacists have chosen to use moral convictions steeped in Judeo-Christian ethic as a right in their dispensing of medications (Wernow &Grant, 2008). Some states in the USA give legitimacy to this stand of these pharmacists. Yet only six percent of pharmacists are likely to adopt such a stand and that too from their religious beliefs (Davidson et al, 2010). Even so this right of the pharmacists runs counter to the principles of autonomy, non-maleficence, and beneficence in patient rights for the dispensing of legitimately required drugs. It is this opposing stances combined with the lack of uniform laws across the USA that has led to a controversy over the use of â€Å"conscience clause† laws by the pharmacists (Weisberg & Fraser, 2009). The Legal Position There are no current laws on whether a pharmacist should dispense emergency contraceptives, or may refuse to do so. In the absence of such laws existing state laws are applicable to whet her a pharmacist may refuse to dispense emergency contraceptives. Not all states have enacted such laws. The states of Alabama, New Hampshire, and Vermont have chosen to remain silent on the issue.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

European Media Policy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

European Media Policy - Essay Example The media industry is booming day by day and is touching new horizons. Its importance is unparalleled in this society as it serves so many needs and without the presence of media, a certain loophole will be left which can not be filled by any other form of communication.1 When it comes to a media policy, this means that there should be regulation and governance in this industry too. The media, if let loose, can have damaging effects as well. Because it is the media of a country which represents the country worldwide and can have dangerous circumstances for the country if, at any point in time, the media broadcasts or prints something which hurts the social, political and emotional sentiments of some other race, culture or country. Therefore, media has to be regulated so that it is unbiased, so that proper rules are followed, so that coverage is done in a standardized form. The European Media Policy is the media policy which regulates the media channels found in the European Union. There is a forum known as the Information Society and Media, which has an European Commissioner and a Directorate General, presently they are Viviane Reding and Fabio Colasanti respectively. The Directorate General has included the "Media" in his responsibilities since January 2005 only. Before this date, he was only responsible for the Information Society. The European Commission also maintains a Commissioner of Communication, whose job description is to maintain links and contacts with the media and have a certain level of relationship with the media. 2 The aims of the European Media Policy is that it wants to see Europe as a landscape with a strong presence and foothold of media and it wants to have an expression based on the element of media pluralism. Another aim of the European Media Policy is to stand up to such a level where it can compete with other media industries on a global and international scale. Pros of European Media Policy One of the major pros of the European Media Policy is that it is seen as a national responsibility by all. Everyone who is concerned or related with the media takes full responsibility of bringing out the best they can in providing news and entertainment plus keeping in mind that every thing has its limitations. This can be generalized to a term self-governance. The stakeholders and the owners of media can self-regulate themselves so as to decrease the need for a strict overlook of the Government and Media Bodies in this matter. The second major pro of the European Media Policy is that when it comes to the media owners and the Government, neither of them have a stronger foothold than the other in the relationship that they share. If it had been such a case where the Government would have had an upper edge in this relationship that they share and would have been easily able to influence the media without the media having any say as to how the regulation should be done, then there would have been a problem. In the case of the European media policy, the media gets affected, directly or indirectly, with situations that take place on a Government level and likewise, the Government is affected by the way the media will

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Prewriting Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Prewriting - Assignment Example When I write about consider writing about a new subject I always begin by trying to find contemporaneous accounts or records written by people who participated in the event themselves.This is an excellent way to ground the topic and prevent it from becoming too abstract.I also do a lot of brainstorming. But primary sources are not enough. Few essay topics require a round up of only one kind of source. In order to provide depth of research, a writer will need to combine primary and secondary sources. In the sciences, for example, raw data is important, but how that data has been interpreted by others, over the years, is also very significant.I try to write down on a sheet of paper everything that I can think of regarding a particular topic. It is important here to turn off the filter and let the ideas come out. Connections between various ideas are important and these can be established by brainstorming. I always try to beware collecting or holding on to irrelevant information, which is sometimes a temptation. It is easy to get sidetracked and create a â€Å"bulge†Ã¢â‚¬â€a part or paragraph of the essay that has no real connection with the thesis. The topic I came up with is State Healthcare Reform. There are a lot of problems with the cost and delivery of healthcare in today's world. We need to find solutions for these problems. My thesis is that Obamacare is not the solution for state healthcare reform. Obamacare will not reduce costs. It will not make insurance cheaper or better. And it is infringement of states' rights. ESSAY One of the most important things for businesses to consider when starting up is whether to how much of their employees healthcare costs they should pay. This is part of a great debate about healthcare and whether the state or employers should pay it or whether people should be responsible for it themselves. It comes down to the basic question: is healthcare a private or a public good? This is a question that states in the United States are currently struggling with. The cost of delivering healthcare is rapidly increasing and becoming a very large portion of the budget of many states. It is unsustainable. At the same time there are many people who remain uninsured either because they have fallen through the cracks or do not have a job that provides them benefits. These are serious problems that many states are facing. Some believe that President Obama's healthcare reforms—Obamacare—are the solution to these problems. However, they do not do much to reduce costs, they force people to buy insurance which is probably unconstitutional, and they will not work. They are not the answer to reforming healthcare in the states. Those who believe healthcare is a public good believe everyone has a right to it and that it is an abuse of human rights to not be granted publicly-funded health insurance at birth. They think that people are effectively tied to their jobs because they are afraid to lose their hea lth insurance. They also argue that it seriously reduces labour flexibility and affects productivity as people stay in jobs they might not want just so they maintain their insurance. There are others who believe the opposite. They would like to see a smaller state that is not responsible for everything in everyone’s life. What could be more personal than health? Why should the government or a business be responsible for paying for an individual’s health? It’s your own choice, for example, whether you smoke or don’t exercise, and yet the business or government must pick up the tab. These is part of the unconstitutional nature of these reforms. The constitution's commerce clause does not permit the government to force people to buy a particular product such as insurance. The costs of enforcing this will be very high. People would probably also lose access to their own doctor if their employer found a cheaper option due to the bulk-buying of insurance plans. That would be good or fair. There area better solutions to reform healthcare. One

Monday, August 26, 2019

Buy me buy me Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Buy me buy me - Essay Example Less focus on the school commercialization does not indicate an end to it, rather it can be an indication of increases acceptance of this marketing practice. Molnar’s audience here is the district governemnt, educational institutes, parents and students. Molnar also impliedly communicates to the community and government at large. In the article we find a lack of governmental policies and their implication along with a similar blind conscience of community. By making this deficiency apparent in his article, Molnar emphasizes for the promotion of an active resistance on all levels. His persuasive argumentation is casting a strong glimmer of reprimand for the advertising industries. The objective of the article is to evoke an active resistance against the school commercialism and to make it clear that school commercialism has not disappeared yet. In the support of his stance against the prevailing misperception, as he clarifies that it may have only been due to the acceptance of increasing commercialization in educational institutes, as he mentions that "Of particular note again this year was the lack of voice in the education media on commercializing activity in schools" (Molnar and Reaves, 2001). The article’s purpose also is to jolt the authorities of educational institutes and the district governments to stir their ethical educational conscience. The school marketing is misleading the young generation and thereby jeopardizing the future of our country. Molnar aims to highlight the still prevailing unworthy cost of such commercialization, as was the case of Philio Morriss textbook program that was advertising smoking at a subliminal level (Molnar and Reaves, 2001). The article intends to evoke awareness in schools and institutions against the persuasive strategies of the industries, to make the institutes aware of the meager benefits and abundant

Sunday, August 25, 2019

How do you plan to keep current or obtain needed competencies for your Essay

How do you plan to keep current or obtain needed competencies for your career responsibilities - Essay Example This requires data entry, update, manipulation, interpretation and security. All of these are the functions of organizing. I have acquired the organizing competencies in my studies of science and management. In order to enhance my organizing competencies, I have been working as a veteran health administrator for quite some time now. In my work, I have to organize the work all the time. I know numerous softwares for data entry and manipulation, and am very good at it. Time management is one of the most important competencies of a public health administrator. Quite often, a public health administrator is required to work in a hurry. It becomes difficult to manage the time. One reason why I have started to work is to learn time management and I think, I have sufficiently achieved that purpose. In the start, I had a lot of difficulties managing the time, but now, I am able to do it very easily. I intend to enhance these skills through working and practicing more.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

(See the information which I have uploaded) Essay

(See the information which I have uploaded) - Essay Example A firm must bring about certain efforts which are geared up to make it sound, look and eventually feel different from the rest of the lot and in the long run, have a selling proposition in it and in its products that help it in winning the customers time and time again. It is significant to understand that having the most sought after employees and workers in the market is necessary since they will give the most productivity in the toughest times possible. (Cappelli, 1999) From a truly organizational standpoint, the current needs in the training regimes require the employees to get themselves acquainted with the ever changing role of Information Technology and the like within the business quarters as well as learn for their own betterment the different mechanisms through which they can make use of the business processes and management activities in a steady and quick manner. (Egan, 2001) They need to align themselves with the advanced technological applications and that too in a quick way because the corporate world of present times is on the move. The training needs are required within any organization since the same would ensure that all the employees understand what they are doing and there are as such no hiccups in the office place so to speak. It is a fact that the workers must know what the end goal for the business is like and on what parameters success is measured as far as the top management of the organization is concerned. There must be uni son in their working mechanisms so that they are all on the same wavelength no matter how trying or tough the circumstances turn out to be. (Varey, 2001) Service marketing and management has remained the key for a long time, especially within the contexts where the same offers a creative edge over other service organizations – the competitors in essence. From an office standpoint, there are certain instances when it is best to choose different people for the various jobs that are


THE APPLICATION OF THEORETICAL MODELS RELATING TO TEAM BUILDING AND MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS TO THE PROCESS OF EVENT MANAGEMENT - Essay Example In the study, effectiveness measures include team performance by multiple evaluations of key stakeholders. Team effectiveness is found to be a result of the interactions among design, process, and contextual support factors. It was suggested that as teams work under interdependent conditions, the positive relationship between team job motivation and team autonomy was reduced (Janz et al. 2006). It is also stressed that teams that have developmental maturity have a more positive demonstration of the relationship between job motivation and team process behaviors such as sharing and innovating, than those that do not. There is a positive relationship between process behaviours and effectiveness, a more positive relationship is recorded in the presence of certain contextual factors such as high-quality goals and efficient information transmission. The presence of other contextual factors, such as feedback and time pressure allows process behaviours and effectiveness for a less positive r esult (Janz et al. 2006). In order for an organisation to achieve maximum returns on investment, teams and leaders need to achieve peak performances - team process skills, leadership, and management development, mind mapping techniques, stress management, and personal and team coaching. Teamwork is important in carrying out a task and spells the difference between group efficiency and lack of it. Teamwork is enhanced in team building activities as it pertains to people working together cooperatively as a tam in pursuit for accomplishing the same goals/objectives. A team building-based approach is fundamental to many organisations, which is proved by reliance upon project teams in driving change and innovation. A so-called 'teamship skills' that are on par with employees' and workers' functional and technical skill sets is what is required of people in order to work in a team dimension. Upon achieving the fundamental outcomes of team building, the team's journey will be accelerated by the second phase of team development toward peak performance. A team development program provided by the organisation will give way for teamship skills and operational framework in order for teams and individuals achieve their full potential (Bowdin et al. 2001). The first step in achieving teamwork and high performance team building is by building strong interpersonal relationships and alignment to team goals, which must be undertaken in the initial building of the team. Trust and rapport can be easily established by a shared experience that involves working together on tasks that are unfamiliar and require a high degree of interdependence. Improved and measurable team building outcomes are sought by modern organisations, in which a team-based approach is fundamental. A clear example of this is the reliance upon project teams in order to drive change and innovation. There is now a necessity for people to possess teamship skills, which are aligned to their functional and technical skills sets. There is also a growing trend of using project teams to drive organisational improvement, which is one consideration in the fast-paced dimension of business. An employee

Friday, August 23, 2019

Smart Home For The Aged Literature review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 10000 words

Smart Home For The Aged - Literature review Example The present smart home designs have shifted their focus from automating the physical activities of the elderly to the disciplining of their minds. They have turned into persuasive agents that focus much of their attention on making the elderly self-sufficient from their home space. Smart homes for the elderly focus on the management of everyday activities. Even though efficient, the act of delegating the management of household tasks to intelligent technological agents is set to experience a few vulnerabilities. Population aging is a common issue affecting most parts of the world. In fact, the generation of people aged 60 and above is expected to rise to surprising levels in the next few decades. The same age group makes up close to 11% of the total population in the world (Miller, 2012). The latest estimates indicate that over 22 percent of the population across the world will constitute those above 60 years of age by 2050 (Harper, 2003). The extraordinary pattern of expected changes has elicited a lot of concern in various countries due to a number of reasons. One major reason is that the elderly generation produces and contributes little to the economy as compared to the working-age population. Thus, the rate of economic growth is expected to be slow since a greater population will consist of the older generation. Another reason for alarm is that a greater segment of the population consisting of the elderly will require much support from the smaller percentage of adults who are economically active. Lastly, the elderly population will impose a huge burden on the economy due to their large number. The elderly need more medical care as compared to the younger generation and this can be expensive to the economy (Harper, 2003). However, the issue is of major concern to many countries across the world. The paper considers how the introduction of smart

Thursday, August 22, 2019

View from the bridge Essay Example for Free

View from the bridge Essay The first presentations of the pair highlight it already with Eddie coming in from work and Catherine calling to Beatrice who is working in the kitchen. [Calling to the kitchen] Hes here, B.! This immediately emphasises the roles and stereotypes of The womens place is in the kitchen. Which obviously Miller wanted to present. Miller further presents the masculine and feminine roles with Beatrice, once hearing that her cousins are arriving that evening, panics about the appearance of the home. I didnt even buy a new tablecloth; I was gonna wash the walls - I was gonna wax the floors, [she stands disturbed] Miller emphasise Beatrices frenzy to highlight the role of women in that time even more to the degree that the male role, [Eddie] has to come in and save the day. Youre savin their lives, whatre you worrying about the tablecloth? Its an honour, B. Suppose my father didnt come to this country and I was starvin like them over there and I has people in America could keep me a couple of months? The man would be honoured to lend me a place to sleep. Beatrice then wells up with tears, complementing Eddie with angel; Godll bless you; you get a blessing for this! This shows that Eddie is the one who knows how to straighten things up in home and put things back into order. The role of a male. Beatrice and Catherine lay and dish out the meal then once the meal has finished, clear and wash the dishes, All whilst Eddie sits down and watched the work been done. This is very typical of the 1950s men and women roles and Miller plays with them, making the masculine role more evident and solid. When Beatrice and Eddie are together there is sometimes an air of tension which appears in imply that there is lack of sex in the relationship. [There is a slight pause and Eddie turns to Beatrice who has been avoiding his gaze] Eddie: What are you mad at me lately? Beatrice: Whos mad? Eddie: What worries you got? Beatrice: when am I gonna be a wife again, Eddie? This shows that the relationship between the two isnt as strong as a married couple should be. Eddie isnt living up to his expectations of a man, and giving Beatrice the feeling of being a complete wife. Eddie replies with I aint been feeling good. They bother me since they came Beatrice then fires back saying that the cousins have only been there for a couple of weeks where as Eddie hasnt been feeling good for three months. Eddie then retreats to himself with I dont know B; I dont want to talk about it. Eddie doesnt want to make an effort with trying to resolve this. He doesnt want to make an effort with Beatrice and he doesnt want to make an effort with the relationship. This can be said be a male trait, that when theres trouble with the missus, the first reaction is to avoid the situation and shut off. Through this way Miller presents another illustration of masculinity. When it comes to Catherine it is realised that Eddie takes quite an interest in her. With her appearance, behaviour and general relationship, making an effort to keep her under his wing, and when this starts to go wrong, he fights harder and harder to keep her there through different ways. Its already seen in the beginning in the play that Eddie is very concerned with Catherine through her dressing. I think its too short he says about a dress. I dont like the looks theyre givin you in the candy store. And with them new high heels on the sidewalk- clack, clack, clack. The heads are turnin like windmills These remarks express the way a father figure would say, which is thought about Eddie at first, and these comments are only looked at in an overprotective way. But as the play goes on, and situations arise that make Eddie to express his unlawful, latent love for Catherine, Eddie becomes more protective and aware of Catherines actions. For example when Eddie relises that there is obviously chemistry between Rooldfo and Catherine, he tells her to go take off her heels, causing her embarresment and looking small infront of Roldofo. Whats the high heels for, Garbo? I figured for tonight- Do me a favour, will you? Go ahead.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

A Literature Study About Greed And Status Psychology Essay

A Literature Study About Greed And Status Psychology Essay This literature study focuses on the link between greed and need for status. After research, it can be concluded that need for status is a relative concept. Since people only feel fortunate when they have as much or a little more than the people in their environment. Therefore, seeing what others have is one of the most powerful influences that stirs greater and greater desires. People may not just want what others have but more than others have. In order to provide the link between need for status and greed, it was necessary to find the relative factors in greed. In this study it is assumed that three facets contribute greed namely, self-interest, materialism and desire for money. All these facets appear to have relative parts. For instance, competitors are individuals who are mainly focused on maximizing their own outcome relative to others. Therefore they always prefer outcomes that are superior to those in their environment. Materialism is defined as the importance a consumer attached to worldly possessions. However, it could also be a competitive striving to have more than others. Materialistic individuals therefore have a desire for others possessions, objects, experiences or persons and resent those who own the desired possessions. The desire for money is also relative since monetary value is inherently invaluable. People do not have a scale to sense what amount is desirable and what is undesirable. Therefore, people r ely on external reference (e.g. what others in their environment receive). Based on that information, people use to judge the merit of their own achievements, whereby it is possible to conclude that monetary experience follows the relative pattern people interpret. Table of content 1. The Seven Deadly Sins The Seven Deadly Sins have provided gossip, amusement and plots for nearly fifteen centuries (Solomon, 1999). The Seven Deadly Sins, also known as the Capital Vices or Cardinal Sins, have always been popular. However, the dubious deadly have caused many speculations (Solomon, 1999: p.7 preface). Pope Gregory the First instituted the classic certification. His list of seven was confirmed and later modified by Saint Thomas of Aquinas. The list survived several centuries and now consists of the following Seven Sins: Wrath, Greed, Sloth, Pride, Lust, Envy and Gluttony (Solomon, 1999 p.2). 1.1 Introduction of the topic A recent study concluded that The Sins are still encountered in our daily lives, despite their existence for all this time (Frank, 2001). This because they are so deeply rooted in our human nature, that not only they are almost completely unavoidable but people can never seem to limit themselves (Frank, 2001). For example, pressing the snooze button once or twice in the morning before dragging oneself out of bed? Or taking a long shower without consideration for your family members? These are only harmless examples, but sins can also cause more substantial consequences. Lately, greed has been a central subject in the economical news. Amongst others parliamentarians, journalists and prominent business men have been presenting this sin as one of the main causes for the current credit crunch (Bernasek, 2010; Trouw: Economics Department, 2009; Staps, 2008). Furthermore, De Soysa (2002) even claims that greed is the primary motivating factor behind civil wars. The main question that intrigues me is: why are people greedy? As ultimately humans and not these sins are responsible for causing credit crunches and wars. According to Wenzel (1968), greed arises due to the nature of earth. He stated that the earth is cold and dry and therefore people who lack heat and humidity are exceedingly greedy. Furthermore, when we take a look at Wachtels theory (2003), greed is known as a form of self-deception. Here self-deception is a false consciousness in which what really matters is suppressed by a single-minded focus on material wealth (Wachtel, 2003). He also concluded that these days greed is stated as a form of self-interest (Wachtel, 2003). For further understanding, it is necessary to define the many concepts of greed. The following definition is therefore utilized throughout this thesis: greed is a selfish and excessive desire to acquire or possess more than one needs  [1]  . 1.2 Problem statement Despite the fact that unwanted situations like credit crunches and wars re-appear, relatively little time is devoted to greed in academic research. Wachtels psychoanalytic research (2003) is one of the few clues within the subject. Though, his research is mainly focused on the link between greed, material wealth and money. However, greed is also viewed in other respects. For instance, Frank (1999) concluded that mutual influence is another important dimension in the process of greed as well. Mutual influence means that our choices, purchases and feelings are influenced by neighbors and family (Frank, 1999). In order to explain this concept, consider the perception of what looks right in clothing. Simply by living in the society, people seem to have an automatic sense about how wide a jacket should be. But when fashion changes over time, peoples perception changes as well (Frank, 1999). Wachtel (2003) made a similar comparison. He said that the envy towards the bigger boat is not redu ced by increasing the average size of the vessels. For when all boats get larger, the average persons assets still feels like just a boat. So, apparently people continuously compare their possessions with others (Wachtel, 2003; Frank, 1999). This could be emphasized with the findings of Duesenberry (1949). He concluded that a concern for status causes people to engage in imitating the consumption standard of those above them in the income hierarchy. But why is status important for people? And what kind of effects does it have on greed? In hopes of finding, the problem definition is stated as follows: What is the effect of -need for status- on greed? 1.3 Research questions In order to answer the problem definition three research questions have been formulated: What is greed? What is status? Will status influence greed? 1.4 Conceptual model After the problem definition and the research questions the following conceptual model has been defined: Greed Need for Status Need for Status (now called status) = Ones position in the world (De Botton, 2004). Greed = A selfish and excessive desire to acquire or possess more than one needs  [2]  . 1.5 Academic relevance There have been several studies about The Seven Deadly Sins, but only a few about greed (Frank, 2001; Solomon, 1999; Wenzel, 1968; Wachtel, 2003). However, there are studies about related topics such as conspicuous consumption, money, materialism and self-interest (Arrow Dasgupta, 2009; De Botton, 2004; Khan, 2004; Krà ¤hmer, 2006; Frank, 1999; Rege, 2006; Richins, 1994; Rucker Galinsky, 2009; Veblen, 1899). In none of these studies, greed is linked to status. In my opinion status is a missing variable in the concept, which potentially could be the underlying motive for people to keep buying material goods. This makes this thesis academically relevant due to the fact that it may contribute to the further understanding of greed and the impact it potentially has on consumer behavior. 1.6 Managerial relevance This thesis attempts to contribute to the further understanding of greed. With this obtained knowledge, it is possible to counteract unwanted developments caused by greed, such as credit crunches or civil wars. It could also raise concern and put this subject on the agenda, in order to be able to protect consumers in the future. 1.7 Thesis structure In chapter 1, the research topic is introduced and explained. The problem definition, conceptual model and research questions are defined as well. Chapter 2 and 3 cover respectively the dependent variable, need for status, and the independent variable, greed. The last chapter describes the conclusions, discussion and recommendations concerning this research. After each chapter, a short conclusion is given for recapitulation and clarification. 2. Need for Status Distinction and status are amongst others the stronger motivations of human behavior (Truyts, 2010). The importance of distinction as a fundamental dynamic was underlined by Darwin (1871). He introduced sexual selection as a selection tool. He concluded that in order to spread the population, people not only need to survive in their natural and social environment but they also need to be a more attractive partner than their same sex competitors (Truyts, 2010). This is also emphasized in more recent research, for example in sociology. Pierre Bourdieu (1979) pointed social distinction as well as status as a crucial dynamic of the social life. It is known, that in traditional and mostly ancient societies, status was hard to acquire. But it was also hard to lose status (De Botton, 2004). For example, someone could not stop with being a lord, due to the fact that it is a title that has been given to someone. What mattered was the identity at the stage of birth, because in that time people did not care about ones achievement (De Botton, 2004). Currently, status rarely depends on someones identity. Instead it depends on someones performance (De Botton, 2004). But what is status precisely? According to De Botton (2004), status is known as ones position in the world. Hereby, the world refers to ones legal or professional standing within a group (e.g. married). Solely, this is a more narrow sense of status since in a broader sense it means ones value and importance in the eyes of the world (De Botton, 2004). 2.1 Biological evidence for the importance of status A range of medical and biological evidence testifies that status induces something real to happen in the human body and brain (Truyts, 2010). For example, Long et al. (1982) found in their study that test persons show a higher heart rate and blood pressure when confronted with an experimenter who bears signs of a high status such as a name tag, suit or formal language (Truyts, 2010). But also evolution-based theories suggest that the desire to be perceived as wealthy, attractive and of high status may be built into our genes (Buss, 2005). So part of the desire for status is defined by our genes and this partly suggests that we enjoy status for the sake of status itself (Truyts, 2010). But is this the only reason why people seek status? 2.2 Signaling status According to Wright (1994) people are always looking for achieving high status in society. But, how do people reach this coveted desire? De Botton (2004) stated that people could generate high status due to their importance, achievement and income. This is also emphasized in the study of Griskevicius, Tybur and Van den Bergh (2010). They stated that high status could be achieved through either dominance or prestige (Griskevicius et al., 2010). Godoy and his colleagues (2006), concluded that nowadays, people spend time and resources in order to communicate their status to others (Godoy et al., 2006). Several researches have concluded the same thing. In relatively simple economies, people equate status using their resources on displaying their skills as providers of food (Gintis, Smith Bowles, 2001; Hagen Bryant, 2003; Hawkes Bliege Bird, 2002; Henrich Gil-White, 2001; Scaglion 1999; Sosis, 2003). This while in more industrialized economies, people associate status with earnings and they signal their potential through public displays of wealth and income (Godoy et al., 2006). This is also emphasized in several other researches. Because in order to communicate status, people rely on several strategies including producing or consuming goods and services (Bliege Bird Bird, 1997; Bliege Bird Smith, 2005; Blurton-Jones, 1984; Patton, 2005; Smith Bliege Bird, 2000; Wilson, 1998; Winterhalder, 1996). This is also emphasized in a recent paper of Heffetz (2004). He noted that, because people are members of social groups they derive satisfaction both from the direct act of individual consumption and from how others perceive their individual consumption (Godoy et al., 2006). 2.3 Status and the others Duesenberry (1949) stated that eventually everyone is looking for more status than other people in their environment. In order to test this theory, he used households as respondents. Afterwards, he concluded that households not only care about their own consumption level but also about their consumption level relative to others (Leibenstein, 1950). This because, according to De Botton (2004), Duesenberry (1949) and Leibenstein (1950), people only feel fortunate when they have as much or a slightly more than the people they grow up with, work alongside or have as a friend. For example, when all people are small they will not be troubled by the questions of size (De Botton, 2004). But if others are taller, people are eligible to feel dissatisfied (De Botton, 2004). It therefore can be concluded that people only envy members of their reference group (De Botton, 2004). Hereby, Wachtel (2003) concluded that seeing what others have is one of the most powerful influences that drives greater and greater desires. People may not just want what others have but more than others have. Or more for mores sake, regardless of any able need on their part (Wachtel, 2003: p.105). In academic research, this is referred to as relative position. 2.4 Relative position The importance of relative position has a long history in economic theory. Veblen (1899) introduced the concept conspicuous consumption and conspicuous leisure. This emphasized the importance of actions designed to display ones relative position in society (Veblen, 1899). Galbraith (1958) stated that most consumer demands do not stern from innate needs, but are largely determined by society. More recently, Duesenberry (1949) used the idea of the demonstration effect to explain how a familys consumption is influenced by the purchases of its neighbors. However, the most comprehensive and recent exploration about relative standing, is written by Robert Frank (1985). He concluded that position externalities occur when a persons action alters an important frame of reference for others (Frank, 1991). Hereby, the so called positional treadmill refers to the process by which each person strives to gain advantage but since all are trying to get ahead, all remain in the same relative position (Frank, 1985). People care about their relative position in society for many reasons. For example a high standing in society can yield respect, admiration and power (Solnick Hemenway, 1998). Hereby, Solnick and Hemenway (1998) stated that feeling good in society is typically more affected by the relative positions than by absolute wealth. Therefore, envy is one of the reasons why individuals care about their relative status (Solnick Hemenway, 1998). For example, Bannerjee (1990) stated that it seems unquestionable that for some people, the pleasure they get out of a particular consumption will be less if they feel that everybody around them has more than they have. However, when they feel that they are on par with the rest of their group they feel better (Bannerjee, 1990). Hereby Frank (1985) declared that someone whose close associates all earn $50.000 a year is likely to feel actively dissatisfied with his material standard of living if his own salary is only $40.000. Yet, the same person would feel good, if his closest associates would not earn $50.000 but $30.000 a year (Frank, 1985). This is also stressed in a number of literature studies, while using experiments called stated preference research. 2.5 Stated preference research Stated preference research puts respondents on a hypothetical spot and asks them to state their preference for the option they believe would maximize their own interests (Truyts, 2010). For example, Solnick and Hemenway (1998) asked their respondents to choose between two companies. A is the more relative company, in which the respondent is worse off in absolute terms but better off than the others. B is the more absolute company where a respondent is better off in absolute terms, but worse off than others. Solnick and Hemenway (1998) made the following distinction: A: Your yearly income is $50,000; others earn $25,000 B: Your yearly income is $100,000; others earn $200,000 After the experiment, it could be concluded that 80% of the respondents prefer the relative case A (Truyts, 2010). A similar experiment was attempted by Tversky and Griffin (1991). They let respondents choose between jobs at a magazine. Hereby one earns at magazine C, a salary of $35,000 and others $38,000. By magazine D one earns $33,000 and others $30,000. Tversky and Griffin report that 85% of the respondents prefer magazine C, but that in a second experiment 64% believe to be happier at magazine D. 2.6 Conclusion Part of our desire for status is defined by our genes. But there are also other reasons, why people want to achieve high status. These days, people are a part of a social group. They therefore derive satisfaction both from the individual consumption and from how others perceive their individual consumption. According to several studies, people only feel fortunate when they have as much or slightly more than the people they grow up with, work alongside or have as a friend. It therefore can be concluded that seeing what others have, is one of the most powerful influences that stirs greater and greater desires. People may not just want what others have but more than others have. Or more for mores sake, regardless of any able need on their part. 3. Greed 3.1 Avarices arise Greed is a vice, which exists for a long time (Childs, 2000). Formerly, it was known as avarice and it dates from the time of the ancient Egyptians. In 2400 B.C.E. they stated: beware an act of avarice, it is a bad and incurable disease (Childs, 2000). Of course, today people do not believe this kind of warnings. However, the declaration from the movie Wall Street (1987) is memorable. Its statement, greed is good, has become a mantra for amongst others the American lifestyle (Childs, 2000). These days, CEOs want more money and the kids want more electronic stuff. However, it is stated that greeds excess is not necessarily in the amount of money or goods acquired (Childs, 2000). Childs concluded that although, frequently such correlations may appear wealth is not always correlated with greed and greed is not always correlated with wealth (Childs, 2000). According to Childs, the excess of greed is in its excessive self-concern and excessive self-enlargement. He also stated that there a re three facets to human greed. First of all it is the excessive desire for goods and wealth. Secondly it is the inordinate desire for acquiring and hoarding money. And last but not least, it is closely related to greediness, which includes the desire for the possessions of others (Childs, 2000). 3.1 Greed and its facets Although greed exists ever since, little academic research has been done about the subject. Therefore it is necessary to stress that in academic literature, greed is mainly approached by looking at related facets. For example, Wachtel (2003) found a relationship between greed and desire for money. This while Childs (2000) found three related facets of human greed namely; desire for goods/wealth, desire for money and greediness. Though, it is also stated that greeds excessiveness lies in its self-concern and self-enlargement (Childs, 2000) which is also retrievable in the definition of greed. According to several dictionaries, greed is a selfish and excessive desire to acquire or possess more than one needs  [3]  . Based on these theories, the facets; desire for money, materialism (for desire for goods/wealth) and self-interest (for selfishness/self concern and self-enlargement) will be discussed in the upcoming chapters. Currently, it is assumed that these three facets altogether contribute greed (Wachtel, 2003; Childs, 2000). 3.3 Chapter structure This thesis mainly focuses on whether there is a relationship between greed and need for status. The literature study in chapter two already showed that status is relative concept. This implies that for reaching consistency in this thesis, it is necessary to look at the facets in a relative way. Therefore, a -status- paragraph is included in each chapter which provides the link with need for status. 4. Self-interest Once, Aristotle wrote the good man should be a lover of himself for he will both profit himself by doing noble acts and will benefit his fellows (Aristotle, 1987). This statement implies that only if someone loves himself, he can help others. Striking is that time changes values, opinions and assumptions. Paul, Miller and Paul (1997) concluded that nowadays the concern for ones own interest is considered a nonmoral issue, while concerns for the interest of others are considered obvious. Since, people are trying to find a proper balance between the pursuit of ones own interest and the good of others (Paul et al., 1997). Moreover, Van Dijk, De Cremer and Handgraaf (2004) claimed that in situations of social interdependence, people vary explicitly in their expressions and acts. For example, some people seldom cooperate genuinely. They only help others when it serves their self-interest (Van Dijk, De Cremer, Handgraaf, 2004). But how come, that people are so reciprocally different in th eir behavior? According to research, this is due to a persons social value orientation. 4.1 Social value orientation Social value orientation is defined as the individual difference in the way people evaluate outcomes for themselves as opposed to others (Messick McClintock, 1968). A number of social values have been identified but usually two opposing orientations are used. Namely the proself and prosocial orientation (e.g. Declerck Bogaert, 2008; Knight Dubro, 1984). In 1978, Kelley and Thibaut presented an analysis about social value orientation. They concluded that the difference between prosocial and proself is partially caused by social interactions (Kelley Thibaut, 1978). Another important difference between prosocials and proselfs is known as the triangle hypothesis. Hereby, Iedema and Poppe (1995) attempted to identify how these two groups scope the social world. Their hypothesis suggests that prosocials have a more heterogeneous scope on the social world and they assume that others can have either the same or different social value orientations (Iedema Poppe, 1995). In contrast, prose lfs tend to hold a more homogeneous scope on others. They believe that all people have the same social value orientation namely proself (Iedema Poppe, 1995). Therefore, the proselfs will make self-serving choices as they believe that the people in their environment will do the same (Iedema Poppe, 1995). Now we know that there are differences between the two orientations but what are the differences when it comes to the need for status? 4.2 Prosocials and status Research showed that status can be achieved either through dominance (e.g. force) or prestige (Griskevicius et al., 2010; Henrich Gil-White, 2001). When talking about prosocials, we focus on status achieved through prestige. Meaning that status is gained through freely conferred appreciation (Henrich Gil-White, 2001). According to several theories, prosocials always tend to maximize outcomes for both themselves and others (e.g. Van Lange, Otten, Bruin Joireman, 1997). This is also evident in their behavior because prosocials always try to minimize differences between themselves and others (Van Lange et al.,1997). Griskevicius (2010) therefore concluded that prosocial behavior can have important functional consequences (Griskevicius, 2010). For instance, engaging in environmental conservation can build a prosocial reputation (Semmann, Krambeck Milinski, 2005; Wedekind Braithwaite, 2002). Having a reputation as a cooperative and helpful group member, can be extremely valuable for that such individuals are not only seen as more trustworthy (Barclay, 2004) but they are more desirable as friends and romantic partners (Cottrel, Neunenberg Li, 2007; Griskevicius 2007; Iredale, Van Vught Dunbar, 2008; Miller, 2007; Stiff Van Vugt, 2008). But also, self sacrifice for the benefit of a group of strangers has been shown to increase the individuals status in a group (Gurven, Allen-Arave, Hill Hurtado, 2000; Hardy Van Vugt, 2006; Milinski, Semmann Kranbeck, 2002). Thus, being prosocial is associated with status in a group and therefore, if individuals desire to have positions of power, prosocial behavior may be a viable strategy for attaining status (Griskevicius et al. 2010). 4.3 Proselfs and status In contrast with prosocials, proselfs tend to only maximize outcomes for themselves (Van Lange, Otten, Bruin Joireman , 1997). In most theories, the proselfs are subdivided in two categories namely; individualists and competitors (e.g. Van Lange et al., 1997). Individualists tend to maximize their own outcomes with little or no regard to others. They are only concentrated on their own goals and they do not respond well to the well-being of other people (Van Lange, Agnew, Harinck and Steemers, 1997). This appears because individualists are not interested in long-term benefits. Competitors also tend to only maximize outcomes for themselves. However, the difference with individualists is that competitors are ultimately seeking for relative advantage over others (Van Lange, Otten, et al., 1997). Therefore, they generally exhibit low levels of sacrifice and they are most concerned with not being exploited by their partners (Van Lange, Agnew et al., 1997). Competitors are also not willing to engage in prosocial behavior (Kuhlman Marshello, 1975; Sattler Kerr, 1991). Not even if they could benefit themselves in the long haul. In fact, Van Lange, Liebrand, Messick and Wilke (1992) reported that competitors may refuse to accommodate their behavior to the cooperative but punitive opponent because a tie cannot satisfy their real motive of outdoing the other (Van Lange et al., 1992). Even when this strategy has proved hopeless, competitors may fail to score as many points for oneself as they could due to the fact that they only focus on limiting their partners (Van Lange et al., 1992). So, it is possible to conclude that competitors always prefer outcomes that are superior to those in their environment (Van Lange et al., 1992). 4.3 Conclusion A number of social values have been identified, but usually two opposing orientations apply namely the proself and prosocial orientation. It may be concluded from the theory, that prosocials achieve status mostly through prestige. Their reputation can be extremely valuable because it has been shown to increase the individuals status in a group. However, it is possible to conclude that this group is not so vital for this research due to the fact that it does not fit the definition of greed. For the excess of greed lies in its excessive self-concern and self-enlargement. However, it is possible to conclude that proselfs are important for this research. These individuals are mostly focused on maximizing outcome for themselves whereas competitors fit the theory of status best. Competitors are mainly focused on maximizing their own outcome relative to others. Therefore they always prefer outcomes that are superior to those in their environment. 5. Materialism The message we receive today is that the pursuit and possession of material goods, income and wealth is the route to increase quality of life (Kashdan Breen, 2007). Even self-identity can be defined by possessions and consumption: I am what I have and what I consume (Fromm, 1976). 5.1 Possessions and the self The term materialism has several definitions. Belk (1985) defines materialism as the importance a consumer attached to worldly possessions while Bredemeier and Toby (1960) refer to materialism as the worship of things. Additionally, materialistic people are characterized by their tendency to define their successes in life by the quantity and quality of their extrinsic possessions (Kashdan Breen, 2007). However, the assumption that people regard their possessions as part of themselves is not new (Belk, 1988). William James (1890), laid the foundation for the modern conception of the self. His definition is stated as follows: A mans self is the sum total of all that he can call his, not only his body and his psychic powers, but his clothes and his house, his wife and children, his ancestors and friends, his reputation and works, his lands, and yacht and bank-account. All these things give him the same emotions. If they wax and prosper, he feels triumphant; if they dwindle and die away, he feels cast down,-not necessarily in the same degree for each thing, but in much the same way for all (p. 291-292). So, the self is not limited to objects but it also includes persons, places and group possessions (Belk, 1988). 5.2 Materialism and psychological needs Guides have similarly insisted that focusing on attaining material possessions detracts from what is meaningful in life (Kasser, 2002). However, Kasser (2002) concluded that such advice is largely drowned out by todays messages, proclaiming that material pursuits and accumulation of things provides satisfaction (Kasser,2002). He concluded that these days, newspapers headlines exalt the lottery winner and get-rich-quick books climb to the top of the best seller list (Kasser, 2002). But will the pursuit of money and possessions bring the good life? Well, for materialists it can. For instance, research found that materialists tend to value financial success significantly more than other life goals such as community (Kasser Ryan, 1993). It is also proven that there is a strong relationship between materialism and desired income (Richins Rudmin, 1994). The income that is necessary to satisfy the needs of a materialistic person is about 50 percent higher than for those low in materialism (Richins Rudmin, 1994). 5.3 Materialism and its motives Fromm (1976) stated that materialistic persons vow possessions as the essence of their lives. However it is not just about purchasing products. Richins and Dawson (1992) found a deeper motivational motive to induce materialism. According to them, materialistic people measure their own success by the number of possessions (Richins Dawson, 1992). For instance, Kashdan and Breen (2007) concluded that materialistic values were positively correlated with the meaning of life, relatedness to others, feelings of competence and gratitude. This corresponds with the results of Kasser (2002). He concluded that positive self-regard and self-acceptance is related to possessions, money, power and image to the world (Kasser, 2002). However, there is also a link between materialism and personal insecurity (Chang Arkin, 2002). For instance, it is shown that self-doubt is a significant predictor of materialistic orientations (Chang Arkin, 2002). 5.4 Materialism and status We learned that materialistic people are characterized by their tendency to define their successes in life by the qu

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Refugees, Children in detention and rights

Refugees, Children in detention and rights Refugees, Children in detention Backdrop Half of the worlds refugees are children but their voices are amongst the least heard. Amidst the debate and conflict around refugees and border protection, the rights of refugee children have been neglected. The vulnerable condition of refugee children is evident from the statement of Ibrahim Ishreti, a refugee child living on bridging visa, he says: before coming to Australia we heard that everyones human rights and freedoms are respected here but nobody would believe what is happening to us†¦ We dont have any human rights and are treating like animals. Like other human beings our lives are not normal and our feelings and thinking are dead. We are depressed and can not smile[1]. Australia is signatory of significant number of human rights treaties including the1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol and own affluent custom of providing shelter to refugees, however the current policy of mandatory detention for on-shore arrival including children (whether accompanied or unaccompanied) has acutely damaged its international reputation. The mandatory detention might be justifiable policy concerns but it advanced wide community pro and contra debate and discussion in the country. The writer is a Pakistani origin immigrant in Australia. Pakistan considers a poorest country of the world host over a million Afghan refugees enjoying ample freedoms, however in Australia where the number of unauthorized arrivals has never been much more than 4000 in any one year are placed indefinitely in detention camps with limited access to services, hence the motive for selecting this topic. Key Aspects of the Policy The inherent intentions for implementing the mandatory detention policy are to have an â€Å"ordered† approach to immigration and to make certain that the countrys boundaries are secure. But little or no consideration has been given to the impact of these polices on the children who are caught up in them. That policy ââ€"  Denies internationally recognised fundamental human rights to all children of particular social group; ââ€"  Children without committing any crime are put behind razor wire and are locks up. ââ€"  And fails to recognises the vulnerability and special needs of these children. United Nations being representative body of the international community has undertaken the responsibility for the promotion and protection of human rights of all human beings including children. Therefore the UN has adopted separate legislation i.e. â€Å"UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC)† in 1989 for the protection of child rights to which Australia became party in 1990. The UNCRC is an exhaustive code of guidance and management for policy development and practices relating to children. This specific child rights legislation emphasizes that a child seeking refugee status is entitle for appropriate protection and humanitarian assistance. The various human rights treaties grant universal rights to refugee children like all other people and additional rights as children and particular rights as refugee. Therefore refugee children are entitled for special treatment and care and not to be treated discriminately. Nevertheless many Australian might support or oppose the governments policy of dealing asylum seekers but the indisputable reality is that subjecting children to any form of detention is a breach of their guaranteed rights. Imprisoning these children in the context of UNCRC is either â€Å"cruel and inhuman treatment† or in soft words is â€Å"harsh treatment†, which are undesirable under the convention. The concerns due to which these children fled from their countries, detention adds in their sorrows and concerns. Therefore if we cant recompense their grievances and concerns then we dont have the right to add into it. The UNCRC articulates[2] that â€Å"holding children in detention shall be used as a measure of last resort and only for the shortest possible time†. But the Australian practice seems to be the denial of this vested right since here refugee children are detained at the outset of their unauthorized arrival. Without going into the facts finding of their flight for a known country putting these children in detention is like closing eyes from their dilapidated conditions they suffered from in their home countries. Being national of this country our happiest lives can never comprehend the worse situations they passed from and pushing into confinement compel them to spend formative years of their lives in detention, which will obviously damage their future personality traits[3]. Keeping children in mandatory detention is denial of their internationally recognised basic human rights. Oftenly it has been experienced that during relief activities the children needs are not properly taking care of which are of vital importance for their normal development and growth. Every child has certain age-specific requirements that must be satisfied, for instance basic health care, nutrition and education are necessary for physical and mental development. Healthy psychosocial development depends in large measure on the nurturing and stimulation that children receive as they grow, and on the opportunities that they have to learn and master new skills. The healthy psychosocial development in refugee children should involve counseling and skills for coping effectively the multiple trauma of loss, uprooting and often more damaging experiences. Hence where the childrens developmental needs are not sufficiently met it results in long-term tragic consequences. Challenges and/or Controversies The Australia international obligations relating to refugees and children are not adequately publicised amongst public at large therefore everyone has their own perception about refugees. Majority believe that refugees are lairs, criminals, ‘forum shoppers, welfare cheats and queue jumpers[4]. It is interesting to note neither international law recognizes the terminology of ‘queue jumper nor other civilized nations use this terminology. The obvious reason for using this terminology could be that Australia is not willing to grant refugee status every individual opted for such status instead it has the intention to allow a carefully selected populace of pre-chosen countries to live as refugees in the country. A significant number of Australians also consider refugees a threat to economy and social services sector of the country. The arrival of children seeking refuge in Australia is comparatively less than the other developed countries, however still children remain a significant percentage of the total number of arrivals. Sometimes children flee alongwith their parents and/or guardians and sometimes alone (usually known as unaccompanied minors). The flight from homeland to the country of refuge subjects all including children to the notions of a new authority though a child neither has any motive nor has any voice in the decision of flight. Article 3 of the UNCRC gives overriding effect to the principle of ‘Best Interests of the child in these wording; â€Å"In all actions concerning children, weather undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interest of the child shall be a primary consideration†. The principle of ‘Best Interests of the child has been enunciated in different Australian laws however the law relating to onshore management of asylum seekers does not contain this principle. The Migration Amendment Act of 1992 identifies asylum seekers as designated persons.[5] Section 189 states that â€Å"a designated person must be detained during the processing of their refugee status†. Section 192 goes further giving two options for release obtaining a Temporary Protection Visa or being deported.[6] This section spells for mandatory detention of everyone including children till the decision of his/her status.[7] Here at this junction the lacking of distinction between immigration status of adults and children confuse the internationally accepted principle of ‘Best Interests of the child and same standard treatment is in contravention of the UNCRC. The policy of mandatory detention can not be justified on the plea that since childrens needs cannot be met in isolation, therefore they are kept with their caregiver in detention. As it is believed that children needs are normally meet most effectively within the context of family and community. It is therefore, necessary to strengthen the capacities of refugee families to meet their own needs and improve the participation and situation of adult refugees particularly women, in their child related activities and in this way they will contribute significantly to the welfare of their children. Selection of one challenge and its reflection on policy based solution Best Interest In relation to the refugee children whether accompanied or unaccompanied the primary goals of any action or program must be: To ensure the protection and healthy development of these children To achieve durable solutions appropriate to the immediate and long term developmental needs of these children. In absence of any uniform definition of ‘best interests for every child, a good indicator to judge whether a child best interests are being achieved, would be a childs aptitude that how much s/he enjoys his or her rights in a available environment.[8] Since the UNCRC also doesnt clearly define childs ‘best interest therefore in all actions and decisions affecting a child; â€Å"it is the best interests of that individual child which must be taken into account rather than children generally. The childs best interests†¦..must be the subject of active consideration†[9]. It necessitates to be established that childrens interests are of primary concerns and have adequately been conferred. The principle of ‘best interests reiterated in article 9(1) of the UNCRC states that children should never be separated from their parents against their will except when ‘necessary for the best interests of the child. The interaction between the ‘best interests principle, family unity and immigration can be enlightened by referring preamble of the UNCRC providing a reference point by recognizing that: â€Å"[T]he child, for the full and harmonious development of his of her personality, should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding†. In order to support the best interests of the refugee children many of the obligations under the UNCRC are relevant for instance, protection from violence, the highest attainable standards of physical and mental health, special care for children with disabilities, education, keeping confidentiality of their personal information, non-discrimination, recreation and the right to full cultural life (including language) are all factors that create a nurturing environment. Incorporating Children voices into policy debate UNCRC believes ‘voiced code for childrens participation in the programs affecting them. This legal instrument marks a change by respecting them as human being capable of full understandings and has power to decision and disregarded that they are being objects of adult intervention. The childrens right to participate in fellow societies has been accepted in articles 12-15 of the UNCRC. This convention has offered in addition to civil, political, social, economic and cultural rights, the right to freedom of opinion expression, information, religion and conscience; and the right to form associations[10]. Refugees children being most vulnerable members of Australian society, they should have the right to have their fundamental needs for shelter, food, physical and emotional care and education have been met, and to live freely and securely within our society. Our society should value and protect them. We are equally responsible alongwith the government to ensure these needs are met if a childs family/caregiver cannot or will not protect their rights. But due to their protracted legal status refugee children have concerns. They are not part of policy decision impacting their lives, hence condemned unheard and ignored. Purportedly three agencies the federal government, the private reformative firms and the state government are in charge of the management of detention centres. There is strong likelihood that these agencies would not consider childrens interests before their own. When the managers of such agencies are in chase of jurisdictional and policy issues where would children placed?[11] This management attitude proves the genuine worries, distress and concern of refugee children regarding their unresolved legal situation and their inability to move towards integration into the Australian community. Many children describe themselves as happy, good, but detailed their depression and distress that accompanied being in a limbo situation. The non-resolution of their migration or refugee situation is their paramount concern. The current manifestations of distress, while particularly concerning are equalled by the knowledge of the long term impact of ‘not belonging; to a community; to a state and to a nation. If a child cannot access normal citizenship, then their ability to grow emotionally and integrate themselves into their new country is diminished. These children have the possibility of becoming adults with a sense of frustration and anger that will impact on their lives and will impact on our lives in the Australian community in the forthcoming years. [NOTE: the writer considers the points of this paragraph as specifics impacting her local area of residence surrounded by refugee children] Conclusion If we step into the shoes of refugees and realize their sorrows and grieves then we will never deny the rights of refugee children to live with their families and reunite them when separated, having access to all basic necessities of life. If everyone of us recognize and struggle to make available all such rights to our children then why deny it for Iraqi, Afghan and Iranian children? We should provide them such harmonize environment where they can play, grow and learn. â€Å"We should keep ready ourselves to answer our children when they will look back on this time and ask what we did for refugee kids, at least we can say we gave them their childhood†[12].

Monday, August 19, 2019

Dirk Slander: Man with a Mission :: Short Story Stories Essays

Dirk Slander: Man with a Mission "Move your slag Princess!" The henchmen shouted at Princess Bithics, pushing her roughly with the end of his gun. The princess stumbled up the step in front of her and banged her knee on the ground. Dirk Slander struggled in his bonds to move toward her, but his captor tightened the grip on Dirk's neck, and punched Dirk in the back to quite him down. "None of that." A scratchy voice whispered in his ear. The man's hot breath floated over Dirk's shoulder and assaulted his nose; it smelled of old wine and rotten eggs. "You be a good boy Mr. Slander, or I tell Randolph there to give your Princess the once over." The man punched Dirk in the back again to make his point. Dirk gritted his teeth and grunted, but didn't cry out. Relaxing a bit, he allowed himself to be pulled back from the princess. She staggered to her feet, tentatively tested the bruised knee, and continued up the stone steps, now walking with a small limp. Dirk had no doubts she was in pain. Sweat beaded around her temples, causing her fine black bangs to stick to her forehead. Dirt was smeared on her cheeks, and blood from her bottom lip trailed off the corner of her mouth down her small but determined chin. She looked nothing like the Princess of Casmir, in fact Dirk would have thought her a different girl entirely if her eyes still didn't hold that radiating icy glare. Dirk had to admire her spirit; most women would be a bubbling mass of emotion by now. The princess had moxy, no doubt about it. "How much of the treasure did Gorgonzola promise you?" Dirk asked the man behind him, keeping one eye on the princess. "He promised me enough, don't you worry about that." Bree answered, and jabbed Dirk with the end of his pistol. Dirk grunted again, but managed to keep his footing. "Watching you die is all the payment I need." "You really think Gorgonzola is going to split with you? What's to stop him from double crossing you the way he double crossed us?" Dirk asked. While he talked, he tested his bonds. He hoped Bree couldn't see him struggling in the darkening twilight. "Mr. Slander I never trust anyone." Bree said, his voice sounded bored and tired. "Which is why I'm the one with the gun and you're the one marching to your death.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

An Analysis of the Poem A Prayer for My Daughter by William Butler Yeat

"A Prayer for My Daughter" is a poem written by William Butler Yeats in 1919. This poem is a prayer-like poem. And it generally tells about the poet's ideas about his daughter who is sleeping at the same time while the poem is being told. Throughout the poem Yeats reflects how he wants his daughter's future to be. This essay will analyze the poem in three sections: 1- What does this poem mean?, 2- The poetic devices, imagery, rhyming, figures of speech, used in the poem and mood, diction, language, and the structure of the poem, 3- An essay in a feminist point of view titled "What does the poet want his daughter to become?" . 1-WHAT DOES THIS POEM MEAN? The poet is watching his infant daughter sleep. In the first stanza he starts with describing the setting of the poem. It is stormy outside, there is a kind of dark and gloomy weather and he prays for her. And he says that he has gloom in his mind and we will understand that what gloom is that in his mind. In the second stanza the poet describes the things while he was praying for his daughter. He walks for an hour and notices the "sea-wind scream upon the tower", "under the arches of the bridge", "in the elms above the flooded stream." They probably represent the dreaming of the human beings and they are decisive. They are all about the present things and they block people from thinking about the future events. The last four lines of the second stanza clearly explain this idea: "Imagining in excited reverie That the future years had come, Dancing to a frenzied drum, Out of the murderous innocence of the sea." In the third stanza he prays for her beauty, but not too much. He considers the beauty as a decisive element for choosing the right person to ma... ... parts of the ideal woman he has in his mind or its opposites. He supports that a woman should be "a flourishing hidden tree", who is not well-known but beautiful. She shouldn't be anything but "merry." " Innocence" is beautiful in women, that's why if his daughter keeps her innocence inside and do not abuse it, she will not be affected by the "wind." He thinks that too much beauty distorts women, and causes them to destroy the gifts that are given by "Horn of Plenty" thus he wants his daughter to use the gifts wisely and properly. And he wants his daughter to learn the fact that "hearts are earned", and the men, who are deceived by just beauty, will notice their mistake later. He wants her daughter not to have strong opinions like hatred, because he thinks that hatred is the worst thing in the world. He hopes she will marry, and her house will be full of customs.

Explaining Laws in Special Relativity :: Science Mathematics Papers

Explaining Laws in Special Relativity Wesley Salmon has suggested that the two leading views of scientific explanation, the â€Å"bottom-up† view and the â€Å"top-down† view, describe distinct types of explanation. In this paper, I focus on theoretical explanations in physics, i.e., explanations of physical laws. Using explanations of E=mc2, I argue that the distinction between bottom-up explanations (BUEs) and top-down explanations (BUEs) is best understood as a manifestation of a deeper distinction, found originally in Newton’s work, between two levels of theory. I use Einstein’s distinction between ‘principle’ and ‘constructive’ theories to argue that only lower level theories, i.e., ‘constructive’ theories, can yield BUEs. These explanations, furthermore, depend on higher level laws that receive only TDEs from a ‘principle’ theory. Thus, I conclude that Salmon’s challenge to characterize the relationship between the two types of explanation can be met only by recognizing the close relationship between types of theoretical explanation and the structure of physical theory. The two leading views of scientific explanation, Salmon’s â€Å"bottom-up† view and the Friedman-Kitcher â€Å"top-down† view, give what appear to be prima facie incompatible characterizations of scientific explanation. According to the bottom-up view, we explain a given phenomenon when we uncover the underlying causal mechanisms that are responsible for its occurrence. The top-down view, on the other hand, maintains that we explain a phenomenon by deriving it from the general principles or laws that best unify our knowledge. In this paper, I focus on theoretical explanations in physics, i.e., explanations of physical laws. I first show that, as Salmon suggests (1989, p. 180-182), it seems promising to treat these two approaches not so much as different views about explanation but rather as descriptions of two distinct types of scientific explanations; there are clear cases of laws that have bottom-up explanations (BUEs) while others receive only top-down exp lanations (TDEs). I then argue, using explanations of mass-energy equivalence in Special Relativity (SR), that this disparity (why should some laws receive only TDEs after all?) is best understood as a symptom of a deeper distinction, first introduced by Newton, between two levels of physical theory. At one level, there is the collection of general principles and definitions of physical terms, i.e., a theoretical framework, from which one derives general constraints for all physical processes. At a lower level, there are laws that identify and describe specific physical interactions like gravitation and electromagnetism.

Saturday, August 17, 2019


FISH! -Stephen Lundin, Harry Paul, Jon Christensen ‘There is always a choice about the way you do your work, even if there is not a choice about the work itself’ A very powerful statement. As a person with a work experience of a couple of years this sentence would have changed the way i approached my work and things related to me. That’s why this book connected with me from the very beginning.The story of the book revolves around the story of Mary Jane Ramirez and her workplace and how an accidental visit to a ‘Fish Market’ changed the way an entire department at an office as well she changed their style of working at work and improved relationships at home. As in the book the main character Mary – a person good at heart & mother of 2 children – after the death of her husband lives a life wherein she is bothered more about the job security rather than being firm and taking risks. With her transfer as a head of Operations department, a dr eaded department in every sense for being unresponsive, unpleasant, negative.In fact it is referred to as toxin energy dump. She feels the need to bring about a change in the department for its revival. A visit to a Fish Market and in particular a store named popularly known as the Pike Place Fish Market where she sees that the workers selling Fish enjoy the work they do & have a lot of fun doing so and also play along the way and involve people around in their activities. Herein the character of Lonnie comes into picture. He is worker at the store and enjoys his job. At this point Lonnie explains Mary the reason for the ‘energy’ visible at the place. He says that there are 4 ingredients that make this place run.He tells her only 1 principle followed and that of ‘Choose Your Attitude’. Mary impressed with the advice sought more data from her boss Bill (a person she did not have friendly relationship) and got a few insights from David Whyte’s poem whi ch changed her for the better. She knew it was time for change. She went through even more materials like that by John Gardener and Sarah Ban Breathnach’s Simple Abundance. At the end of it she knew that had to be the leader who believed in herself and bring about the change. The very concept of ‘Choose Your Attitude’ was applied by her to her own thinking and then explained to her staff.The staff agreed about the problems of the department and gave reasons for their behavior. But she had shown them a way of revival. The staff too felt the need for the change and found a leader who actually cared for them. They decided to take it in a positive way and the result was seen in the elevator where a poster of Choose Your Attitude was put up. The change had begun. With added confidence Mary along with her kids Brad and Stacy visited the market again when they learned the second ingredient of ‘Play’. A value which was displayed by a kid, which adults need t o learn enjoy their work.This taught that a lot can be learned from kids. Having fun doesn’t take the seriousness out of the business but one enjoys what one does and achieves targets. The third ingredient in creating a high-energy world famous market was ‘Make Their Day’. It was showcased by a co-worker at the store named Wolf giving the trio a fish each and was also seen when people were involved in their daily activities of the shop. The people enjoyed being a part of it to the fullest. That indeed made their day and made them happier. Also focusing ones attention on ways to make another person’s day provided a constant flow of positive feelings.The fourth ingredient ‘Be Present’ by displayed by the workers in the way they interacted with the customers and remained attentive and interested in answering the queries of their clients. Mary decided to take her staff for the field trip and made them have a firsthand experience of the fish market and her entire staff was inspired and they were given time to think about their learning and think about the ways to implement it at workplace. The fact that a few of the staff members actually visited the fish market showed that they were influenced by the idea. They took their families along with them and they enjoyed the time spent.With most of the employees inspired by process it was decided to create teams based on each of the 4 ingredients and they were given all needed the required support by Mary. Each of the teams presented their reports on each of the topics. Each team drafted their topic by enlisting what all would be the benefits of Play and how these could be implemented in the Office. The team Play made the members take part in a game in which circles cut from coloured paper and people stepped on them along with the music. The benefits and implementation was shown through this.The make their day team divided the entire group into various teams. Each team was given fif teen minutes to develop strategies for supporting and enhancing the work of a key group of people. A customer survey was used as input data for the same, which took many of them by shock. The winning team which gave the best suggestion was given symbolic mementos. Next The Present Moment Team which made the employees to relax and had inspired reading took place in the entire hall. Also a number of experiences of individual employees were shared. The team decided to resolve on a few changes for better functioning.Finally The Choose Your Attitude Team made a presentation which was brief and to the point. They decided to distribute books which would inspire individuals and have discussions on them. The strategy got implemented throughout the next year. Mary on her part too decided against quitting her job as she was confident of bringing about a change to the department and in its people. Exactly a year later the situation had changed and the department was one of the most sought after places in the company. Mary was awarded with the Chairwoman’s Award for her work. The icing on the cake was the finding of a life partner in Lonnie.The character played of Mary is a person who has lost a few qualities along the way due to family circumstances. She rises from it and makes the workplace better for her as well as other employees present. She experiences change first hand with the relationship between her boss and also her employees. Lonnie’s character is also central to the passage. He explained Mary the various aspects of the 4 ingredients so that she could implement it at her workplace. The book has a message in each and every incidence. The frustration with jobs is experienced by all. The principles which have been mentioned have truly enriched me.The principles of ‘Choose Your Attitude’,’ Play’, ‘Make Their Day’, ‘Be Present’ are something which i will like to apply in my daily activities in office as well as college. The approach of not quitting a job in which one is unhappy but making it a better place for oneself and the people around in utmost essential. The issues mentioned are experienced by each one of us including me and the 4 ingredients provide the key to success. Along with that the resolution of Mary Jane to bring up her kids is commendable. It teaches not to give up irrespective of any calamity and keep striving to achieve ones goals.Even in my daily life I get sadden by events but the book has taught me to cheer myself up and try to change certain bad tendencies in me to avoid repeat of events. It has taught me to think about others, about their well being. It has taught me to care for others. The principle of including people around you in activities enriches the activity as a whole and also creates a bond between individuals. The book on the whole was an excellent learning experience on how through simple steps one can bring about a great deal of change in one ’s personal as well as professional life.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Comparison of the Japanese and American Cultures

Comparison of Japanese and American Culture Abstract There are some interesting issues engaging gender and cultural diversity in non-verbal communication. It begins by looking over gender variations in body language and the different uses of gestures and posture in comparing the Japanese and American cultures. Nonverbal communication is used in all social settings. Many times nonverbal communication is not seen for its real definition. In this period of internationalization the American education method is unequipped to handle successfully with the latest realism of a mutually dependent national country. American education is lagging at the end of the charts of Japans developed nation. America’s education needs to be retransformed to suit the needs of a rising nationalized financial system. Nowadays, humanitarians have inspirations of achieving the maximum level of schooling and they know it is vitally important for them to be successful. The steady declining of the American instructional method; the expectation for a victorious outlook for many appear desolate. The idea behind educational curriculums within schools must not only position onward the capability to master reading and comprehension skills, writing skills and mathematical and statistical problem solving, but also get each student ready from the primary, middle, and high school levels with skills in understanding the highly skilled requirements in the everyday working world. Comparison of Japanese and American Culture All societies differ among different cultures. Their cultures differ through customs, and education. A comparison of Japanese and American culture reveals a wide range of societal differences. Japanese culture is not always simple to comprehend, assessing it from an external point of view. The Japanese are a uniquely homogenous country. Japan has been secluded by natural features and by preference of their own, that moderately hardly any outsiders reside in Japan. A culture distinction that the Japanese discover in America is their greeting traditions. Although the greeting is one of the easiest ways for man-kind to communicate, both countries include diverse ways of addressing one another. Three differences include arrival, self-introduction, and leaving. The focal rationale for the diversity is that Americans exercise spoken gestures and the Japanese use unspoken gestures. Cultural beliefs offer implication to individual awareness of â€Å"who does what to whom wherever. † Nonetheless, the outcome of the various actions intended at oneself has been scientifically analyzed. Cross-cultural differentiations in generating a signification of self-fulfillment or self-actualization are communicated through feeling, labeling and characteristic attribution. The process of self-introduction varies between America and Japan. Americans are quick to have a discussion regarding their private matters. Americans usually converse about their relatives, spouses, or themselves. The Japanese prefer a more low key method. Japanese people are akin to chat about where they belong. For example, what school or university they attend, what there major is, or what type of club they have joined. Leaving a place or being in the American and the Japanese cultures depend on whether people are close in proximity or far away. Americans seem to say â€Å"bye† for either situation. Some Americans give a hug or a kiss when they leave one another. Unlike Americans, who immediately say â€Å"goodbye,† commonly Japanese build a trivial bow and glance back several times while waving their hand. Amongst the varied farewells, every Japanese individual who resides in America is shocked when they receive a embrace from an American, and they believe Americans are sappy. Japanese sense meaninglessness when Americans say â€Å"bye† and immediately leave. The variations in greetings are that the Americans prefer to be verbal and the Japanese prefer to be nonverbal. Americans are quick to exercise the verbal, so Americans say â€Å"Hi† or â€Å"How are you? Even people who are strangers say â€Å"How is it going? † Japanese people who arrive in America are puzzled whether they should react or be quiet. Japanese believe Americans are friendly and rejuvenating. Japanese people are likely to communicate a nonverbal language. Many Japanese just make a bow with a smile indicating respect. Usually, young people have to make a deep bow for their superiors. Not only gesture but also voice and countenance are very significant. Every American who is in Japan feels uncomfortable at first because they are not used to Japanese customs. Normally, we anticipate conversing face to face than when conversing obliquely, for example through letters. Nonverbal communication, such as one’s appearance, quality of voice, facial appearance, and body language all present additional information that enhances ones understanding. Nevertheless, when cultural diversity is engaged, this extra information can root added misunderstanding. Body languages are an essential part of greetings. Japanese usually bow as they articulate their greetings and Americans extend their arms for handshakes in the form of a greeting. Mainly Japanese who are accustomed with the global view are familiar to handshakes, but when it comes to embracing hugs and extending kisses very little Japanese identify the acts and manners implicated. Even with handshake greetings it can be uncomfortable since a lot of them are not capable of withholding bows while they extend shake hands. Bowing is an essential way of greeting and politeness for the Japanese. It allows them to acknowledge one another without invading each other's personal space; Americans do not take that into consideration when they are greeting each other. It also allows them to greet each other at a distance, whenever a verbal greeting is not practical. It foreshadows words in the vivid expressions of emotions. The Japanese feel that if they lose it, it would be like losing part of their courteousness. Making eye contact can be culture dependent. Americans might become uncomfortable when talking to their Japanese associates, who often do not control and maintain good eye contact during conservation. For example, Japanese would become angry if an American that was driving looked away from the traffic to make conversation with their passenger. Even and continuous communication is more than understanding words and etiquette. The tempo of communication seems to fluctuate amongst America and Japan. Regularly, Americans talk relentlessly. But Japanese continue gentler, pausing from time to time to evaluate the circumstances or to let the quietness speak for itself. Whenever English is the preferred language, the American's have a tendency to speak without having to pause and can simply devastate the Japanese, whose English aptitude is probably not elevated sufficiently enough to listen in and at the same time think of what to say next. Often the Japanese businessmen use an interpreter to avoid those types of situations. In contrast, Americans seem to get nervous when Japanese pause in conservation and their break in conversation seem like eternity before they continue speaking. To many Japanese, Americans seem to rely a lot on drawn out verbal dialogue where a simple chart or table is adequate. Conventionally, the Japanese rather brief verbal expressions. In fact, telling one they are skillful with words could be can be seen as a bad compliment, and referred to as being underhanded. Voice pitch plays a significant sociocultural role in the expression of emotion and politeness in conversational speech. (Yuasa 2008) The theory that the entire Japanese communal connection is modeled after the mother and child bond sets a tone for their country. The outcomes of affect and power models imply a multifaceted picture where juvenile American boys are taught to be self-sufficient, but juvenile American girls are pushed to exhibit dependence. Mothers that raise children in America try to validate their character through most favorable actions with kids who operate beyond a normal child's character produce boys that fight back and girls who are passive if they follow the Japanese rules of character development. The mother of an American child conforms her character as a mother by teaching her youngster to be independent. The mother of a Japanese child has the nurturing spirit to carry and hug their child as a way of showing their love. The Japanese model imitates the over controlling and overly understanding approach of native Japanese mothers. The Japanese mother who oversees or observes her child is given an incentive with distinctive characteristics validating reactions like hanging on to and supplying conduct from the youngster not expected for mothers and kids in the United States. Japan and the United States are eagerly focused on education. Both homelands focus on education as a shared accountability of the nation. Even though there are many comparisons, there are also differences among American and Japanese missions and visions of education, and there positions are aimed in different paths of transformation in both homelands. Schooling is also obligatory for both countries. In the United States most children begin primary education with kindergarten and depending on the district prerequisites; they complete their education in their senior year of high school. Since Americans are actively creating universal goals and targets, increasing and utilizing additional standardized tests for all scholars, and shifting in the direction of traditional based school improvement; the Japanese appear to want the reverse unassembled standardized standards, shifting away from the anxiety of nationalized examinations, and centering more attention on the creativeness and possibilities of each scholar. This is an objective that has frequently been disregarded in Japanese culture and the education reflections. Japan's education method allows teachers to inspire students learning throughout their well organized programs of study, securely joined together through all subject matters, that connects students and fabricates well-built classroom affiliations. Complete course group teaching aids Japanese schools to encourage their students by highlighting exertion over aptitude, connecting students, constructing well-built classroom associations, and uniting students under a common objective. Customary functions focused on the gender separation of hard work among a male wage earner and a female head of household have become defying in several current industrialized homelands by transforming women’s communal outlooks. A convergence of trends, including increasing female wages and employment rates, decreasing fertility and family size, rising divorce rates and numbers of female-headed households, and increasing education and participation in women’s movements, have undermined many of the incentives and requirements of a traditional family arrangement (Mason and Lu 1988). References 1. â€Å"What Japan Thinks of Us: a Nation of Crybabies? Newsweek April 2, 1990 2. Doi, T. (1996) â€Å"Foreward† Pp. Xv-xvii in D. W. Shwalb and B. J. Shwalb (editors), Japanese childrearing: Two generations of scholarship, New York: The Guilford Press. 3. Mason, Karen O. and Yu-Hsia Lu. 1988. â€Å"Attitudes Toward Women's Familial Roles: Changes in the United States, 197 7- 1985. † 4. Osgood, C. E. , W. H. May, and M. S. Miron. 1975. Cross-Cultural Universals of Affective Meaning. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. 5. Yuasa, I. 2008. Culture and gender of voice pitch; a sociophonetic comparison of the Japanese and Americans, 2009. Equinox Publishing Limited; Questia. com `