Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Need to write a paper on a Role - Play assignment Essay

Need to write a paper on a Role - Play assignment - Essay Example Secondly, I recommend for an establishment of a central source of power and information. This will stop the current multiple requests for similar information (Ramos 26). In the event that Torres handles this task, coordination will set a pace for quality work in the council. Regarding the third complaint of the failure to meet deadlines and attending meetings, I propose that the employees commit in writing on what is expected of them at specific timelines. Stiff penalties such as warnings and dismissal letters must be put on employees who fail to meet the requirements of the management. This will ensure that the staff members adhere with the time set for the morning meetings and all the deadlines set despite their urgency. Fourthly, the management should make it clear to the employees on who Torres is in the company and that she should be given all the respect that she deserves regardless of her sex and racial affiliation. So as to reduce the chances that the new employees are disloyal to Torres, I propose that they report to her every morning and evening with clearly written progress on their work. Alongside their written presentations, the new workers must also ensure that they also get responses from the old staff on how the company has been running prior to their coming in and what they should emulate from them. This move will allow the new staff move with the pace set by Torres before their contract with the company. If this management plan is implemented, it is expected that the city council will have a new look that will drive the employees towards meeting the expected demands of the management, and the management driving the council as expected. This plan will also reduce any forms of bias that may exist in the company as sexual as well as racial

Monday, October 28, 2019

Spring by Edna St. Vincent Millay and the Sick Rose by William Blake Essay Example for Free

Spring by Edna St. Vincent Millay and the Sick Rose by William Blake Essay The first poem is called, Spring, by Edna St. Vincent Millay and the second poem is called, The Sick Rose, by William Blake. The two poems are similar in the way that the personas express their feelings towards life. Beauty, the seasons of life, and the meaning of life are the focuses of both poems. What is the meaning of life?: a question that has been asked since the beginning of mankind. This question is asked in the beginning of Spring. The narrator of the poem seems really depressed because of the way she expresses her attitude towards life. In the very beginning of this poem the narrator is asking what the purpose of life is. So from the start this poem seems to be very gloomy. We seem to ask what the meaning of life is more, when we are sad, depressed or maybe something/someone has turned against us; Like in the poem, The Sick Rose. In this poem the narrator says, O Rose, thou art sick! The invisible worm, That flies at night, In the howling storm. In my opinion the narrator is saying that life isnt worth living and we are all like worms in a storm. Basically he/she is saying that life is a very confusing and frustrating place sometimes. In my opinion the deeper meaning is that in reality a worm is so tiny compared to the rest of the world. When the narrator says, That flies at night, this just emphasizes even more about how small and invisible this worm is. When it is dark outside you can hardly see anything, so it would clearly be impossible to see something invisible. I think that what this poem is trying to portray is, that we as human beings are very tiny compared to the whole world and that we as individuals are invisible. So in theory, I think that this poem is about how the narrator thinks that one person cant make a difference in life. In a way this is similar to the first poem because the author has a negative attitude towards life and does not think highly of it, Life in itself Is nothing Both poems have a very negative outlook on life. Although there is one major difference and this comes at the end of both poems. Though both may seem to end on a negative note, Spring (the first poem) seems to end more positively, April comes like an idiot, babbling and strewing with flowers. In the end of the poem the narra tor seemed to end negatively but yet still recognized the beauty in life. In, Spring, the narrator feels that she is not beautiful enough. I think  that she is trying to portray that everyone wants to be beautiful but not everyone is going to be. This is similar to, The Sick Rose, because in this poem beauty is destroyed by love just like in the first poem when beauty is eventually destroyed because death is inevitable. Both poems show a different attitude towards beauty. Spring, ends by recognizing beauty while, The Sick Rose, ended by killing it. Both poems have a season theme. In the first poem the season is obviously Spring. The narrator in this poem Spring talks about the, strewing flowers, but she does not set the mood for spring. In this poem it is very depressing when it should be happy, with flowers blossoming, animals coming out of hibernation, leaves are just starting to bud on the trees, and so on. That is how Spring should be, but in this poem it is portrayed as the worst of all four seasons. In, The Sick Rose, poem the season must be Autumn because everything is gloomy, the leaves are falling off the trees, flowers are withering, and its always raining. The mood in this poem fits the season perfectly. In conclusion, both poems discuss the meaning of life. The first ends more positively but they both still have negative attitudes. In, Spring, the narrator does not like beauty but by the end she changes her opinion while the second poem is interpreted as beauty being killed by those who love it. Both poems incorporate the seasons of life but the season fits the mood better in the second poem. True beauty and the meaning of life can only be discovered by actually living life itself.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

The Role of Fashion Promotion Within the Fashion Industry Essay

The Role of Fashion Promotion Within the Fashion Industry I am going to write about what the role of fashion promotion is within the fashion industry and discuss how it might develop in the next five years. To do this I shall review what fashion promotion is by defining it and finding out how, when and where it started. To understand what fashion promotion really is in a contemporary context I shall broadly look at how it is used and what many forms it has taken since the beginning up until the present day. To look at how fashion promotion may develop in the next five years I shall analyse and critique specific examples in more detail, such as finding out how these specific types of fashion promotions are used, by whom and for what purposes. I shall discuss the benefits and shortcomings and compare and contrast the examples to extract the implications of their usage. It is difficult to predict fashion's future but researching its history and development, identifying reasons why and how things have happened to make it what it is today, and analysing the pace at which it is developing, will help us to think about and envisage where fashion may progress in the next five years. Designers and manufacturers design and produce garments; promoters and communicators then deal with the next steps, such as: image concept or brand to either an audience or market. The Oxford English Dictionary states that fashion is "a popular trend, especially in dress" and "the production and marketing of new styles of clothing and cosmetics." It states that promotion is an "activity that supports or encourages", "the publicizing of a product or celebrity", "(promotions) the activity or business of organizing such publicity" and "elevation to a hig... ...ning what is happening today culturally, socially and economically. By applying our research, we can improve our forecasts of what may happen next in fashion promotion but there is much greater variability in the factors affecting fashion trends today, which makes prediction even more difficult. The usual measures do not necessarily suggest the next fashion styles. This allows more extreme fashion to become more main stream as fashion buyers will take greater risks to surprise the competition in the hope of establishing a new order through strong brand differentiation. Bibliography The Times. Fairtrade seeks  £50m for expansion, Sarah Butler, 24/02/07) The Oxford English Dictionary Bruzzi S. & Church Gibson P. (eds). 2000. P.96 H.Radner (2000) in S.Bruzzi & P.Church Gibson Fashion Cultures: Theories, Explorations & Analysis, London: Routledge, pp. 128-134)

Thursday, October 24, 2019

American History-19th Century Essay -- essays research papers

As urban industrial workers expanded in the 19th century, industry and the industrial work force boomed as well. Workers , however, were met with difficult situations that ultimately led to violent outbursts. Low wages could not buy food and clothes at the same time and conditions in the work place brought about countless deaths and injuries. Growing number of immigrants caused the reduction of wages and insecurity of the workers caused unemployment. There were hostilities between workers, employers, and organizations and complaints of no social safety nets. Due to these chaotic dilemmas, union members decided to emerge as one, in order to overcome the corporations. Methods of scientific management were incorporated and the two ideological groups (radicals and conservatives) were firmly rooted in the belief of mutualism. However, conflicts between anarchists and capitalists ignited strikes, generating the Haymarket Square Riot along with the Homestead and Pullman strikes. It was then clear that they could not eliminate corporate control. Even with unity, the workers resulted in a fruitless effort. Urban industrial workers were bombarded with many problems, a major one being long working hours. They not only had to endure endless hours of labor and turmoil, but received scarcely any pay at all. To make things worse, they were struggling to exist in the late 19th century where industrialization was flustering and depressions were part of the norm. An average American worker earned a measly $500 per year and a woman only half as much as the men. People were not making enough money to purchase the necessities of life and thus, lived a hard, struggling life. A woman stated she didnà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t "live" , but merely "existed".. she didnà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t live that you could call living." However, even at low wages, an incredible number of hours were being worked. Skilled workers worked an average of 50.4 hours a week and the unskilled at 53.7 hours a week. Where machines replaced workers, the cost of the equipment had to be covered by intensive labor. Steelworkers, for example, worked on average 63.1 hours per week; some laborers were even required to work 12 hours a day, 7 days a week, with even a 24 hour shift and only one day off every two weeks. Long laborious effort... ... Chicago decided to cut the wages of its workers. Due to Pullmanà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s monopoly on sleeping cars, the American Railway Union (ARU) was created by Eugene V. Debs. The ARU was ordered not to handle the sleeping cars. Railroad officials saw this boycott as a chance to break up the union. The ARU spread the strike all throughout the country which resulted in the disruptance of US mail. President Cleveland sent in troops to cease the strike with the help of Attorney Olney. The ARU was stopped and Debs was put in jail. The corporation won once again, but this time with the power of the government and its arbitrary power over corporation rule. Workers did become "one" and worked well together as "one" but did not succeed as "one". Even throughout lock-outs and strikes, they were suppressed by government power and corporation rule. The power they had hoped to gain as they united wasnà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t strong enough to overcome the arbitrary rule and omnipotence of corporations and the government. Miseries of their laborious life continued as hours remained long, wages remained low, conditions remained unsafe, and workers remained disheartened.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Bmw’s Dream Factory and Culture Essay

The culture at BMW is an entrepreneurial culture which emphasizes creativity, risk taking and the bottom-up system of freewheeling ideas. The top-down management style is popular in Germany but not at the BMW. As soon as associates start working at the BMW, they will have the sense of the place, history and the mission of the company. BMW creates a working environment that promotes easier communications between leaders and employees. Every employee can contribute his or her ideas and creations via either formal or informal ways. For example, an employee sees his or her supervisor by chance on the way to lunch, he/she can tell this person of the idea which has just happened in his/her mind. More importantly, their voices and their ideas are heard, welcomed and brought into discussions and consideration. As a result, a car from BMW is often a production of thousands of impromptu brainstorming sessions. Furthermore, BMW cares for the benefits of its employees. It includes all employees in profit sharing. It has a plan that distributes as much as one and a half months’ extra pay at the end of the year to employees. The company also provides a high level of job security for its employees. Lastly, BMW also focuses on high-quality but practical products which meet the demand of consumers and are highly competitive with other auto producers. The company’s near-failure from producing impractical and expensive cars during the postwar time in 1959 was a big lesson for them. This near-failure is always retold and mentioned in all new orientations for the new associates. It helps to remind all employees at BMW of a lesson learned for the company in developing its plans in the future and ensuring that kind of mistake should never happen again. 2. Discuss the model of leadership illustrated at BMW. The model of leadership illustrated at BMW is the consideration model of leadership. The leaders at BMW have close relationships with subordinates that are based on mutual trust, two-way and open communications, and respect for employees’ ideas. The managers at BMW must stay humble and work closely with subordinates and their peers. The Leipzig factory, which looks like an art museum, is a very creative working environment that can make the communications between managers and employees easier. Managers at BMW are the ones who know to make the right questions to ask their subordinates, not the ones who have all the right answers. They also emphasize the satisfaction of their employees’ needs and provide as many benefits to their employees as possible. They are approachable and always willing to listen to their employees. They think if the employees are well motivated, better cars will be produced. . Discuss how the leadership model contributes to the culture. The leadership model at BMW shortens the distance between leaders and subordinates. The relationships between them are built on mutual trust. Employees can feel free to raise their innovative ideas to their managers anytime and anywhere. When the employees see that their voice is heard, they are more encouraged to talk. Moreover, the company cares for the employees’ benefits. In return, the employees are very flexible to contribute their best for the company. The employees do not mind working temporarily for months in another work location which requires them to be far away from their family. They are willing to work for extra hours without being concerned about overtime. In summary, the leadership model at BMW has made it such a culture that is quite distinct from other German companies. 4. Discuss why employees derive high job satisfaction at BMW. The employees of BMW derive high job satisfaction because their benefits are well cared of, their voice is heard and their hard work is highly appreciated. Also, their job security at BMW is high. Any employees, regardless of what grade they are, can contribute their ideas and their innovations to the company’s managers easily. There are no complicated, formal processes or procedures required to send their ideas to their management teams. Furthermore, when the company gets more profits, the employees will also be more benefited. Good working environment is developed and paid attention to. In conclusion, BMW’s employees are highly motivated so they are satisfied and willing to contribute more to the development of the company.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

PSAT Scoring How Does It Work

PSAT Scoring How Does It Work SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips If you're preparing to take the PSAT, it'simportant you understand everything there is to know aboutPSAT scoring. How is the PSAT scored? And how will this information help you get the score you want on test day? On the SAT? In this article, we go overthePSAT scoring scale and show you how to calculate your PSAT scores using official scoring tables. We also coverSelection Index scores and offer our top four tips on how to utilize PSAT scoringto inform both PSAT and SAT prep! How Is the PSAT Scored Overall? By Section? The PSAT scoring scale is 320-1520 in 10-point increments. On this scale, 320 is the minimum score you can get and 1520 is the maximum. This scale differs just slightly from the SAT scoring scale, which is 400-1600. Like the SAT, your total PSAT score is a combination of your Evidence-Based Reading and Writing (EBRW) and Math scores. (The EBRW score comprises the Reading and Writing and Language sections.) Both EBRW and Math use a score range of160-760, with each section accounting for halfyour total PSAT score. So a 500 on EBRW and a 600 on Math would equala total PSAT score of 1100. But obviously there aren't1,520 questions on the PSAT! So why is the PSAT scoring scale out of 1520? The reason for this is thatall of these scores are actuallyscaled scores, which areconverted fromraw scores (equivalent to the number of questions you answered correctly) through a specialequating process. The College Board uses this process toaccount for variances in difficulty among PSATs - essentially, to ensure that a scaled PSAT score will always indicate the same level of ability, no matter when you take thetest. Here’s how theCollege Board describes the PSATequating process: â€Å"This conversion process adjusts for slight differences in difficulty among versions of the test and provides a score that is equated, or consistent, across forms. This process ensures that no student receives an advantage or disadvantage from taking a particular form of the test on a particular day;* a score of 400 on one test form is equivalent to a score of 400 on another test form.† *Emphasis mine. Upon completing the PSAT, you’ll earn three raw scoresfor Math, Reading, and Writing and Language (hereafter referred to as â€Å"Writing†). So if you were to answer 40 Math questions correctly, your raw Math score would be 40. Likewise, if you were to answer 26 Writing questions correctly, your raw Writing score would be 26. You do not lose any points for incorrect or blank answers.These raw scores are thenequated into your final (scaled) Math and EBRW scores. Here's the catch, though: theequating formula differs for each PSAT. Andbecause only the College Board knows what these formulas are, we'll never be able to predict exactlyhow a raw score will convert into a scaled score on an upcoming PSAT. Nevertheless, we can use scoring charts from official PSAT practice tests to estimate how raw scores may translate into scaled scores. Thesetables differ foreach practice test but are extremely helpful because they show ushow PSAT scores typically convert into scaled scores. Scoring charts are the handy, dandy notebook for high school students. Below aretwo examples of PSAT scoring charts, both taken from official PSAT practice tests: Practice Test #1PSAT Scoring Chart Raw Score Reading Test Score Writing Test Score Math Section Score Raw Score Reading Test Score Writing Test Score Math Section Score 0 8 8 160 25 26 25 560 1 9 9 190 26 26 26 570 2 10 10 210 27 27 27 580 3 11 11 240 28 27 27 580 4 12 12 270 29 28 28 590 5 14 13 290 30 28 28 600 6 15 14 320 31 29 29 610 7 16 14 340 32 29 29 620 8 16 15 360 33 30 30 630 9 17 15 370 34 30 30 640 10 18 16 390 35 31 31 650 11 18 16 400 36 31 32 670 12 19 17 420 37 32 32 680 13 19 18 430 38 32 33 690 14 20 18 440 39 33 34 710 15 20 19 460 40 34 35 720 16 21 20 470 41 34 36 730 17 21 20 480 42 35 37 730 18 22 21 490 43 36 37 740 19 22 21 500 44 37 38 740 20 23 22 510 45 37 750 21 23 23 520 46 38 750 22 24 24 530 47 38 760 23 24 24 540 48 760 24 25 25 550 Source: Scoring Your PSAT/NMSQT Practice Test #1 Practice Test #2PSAT Scoring Chart Raw Score Reading Test Score Writing Test Score Math Section Score Raw Score Reading Test Score Writing Test Score Math Section Score 0 8 8 160 25 25 26 530 1 9 9 190 26 26 26 540 2 10 10 210 27 26 27 540 3 11 11 240 28 27 27 550 4 12 12 260 29 28 28 560 5 13 13 290 30 28 28 570 6 14 13 310 31 29 29 570 7 15 14 320 32 29 29 580 8 16 14 340 33 30 30 590 9 16 15 350 34 31 31 600 10 17 16 370 35 31 31 610 11 17 16 380 36 32 32 620 12 18 17 400 37 32 33 630 13 18 18 410 38 33 33 640 14 19 18 420 39 34 34 650 15 19 19 430 40 34 35 670 16 20 20 440 41 35 36 680 17 21 20 450 42 35 37 700 18 21 21 460 43 36 38 710 19 22 22 470 44 36 38 730 20 22 23 480 45 37 740 21 23 23 490 46 38 740 22 24 24 500 47 38 750 23 24 24 510 48 760 24 25 25 520 Source: Scoring Your PSAT/NMSQT Practice Test #2 Bycomparing the tables above, we can see that there are small differences in how raw scores convert into scaled scores. For example, a raw Math score of 37 converts into 680 on Test #1but only 630 on Test #2! As I explained previously, these conversions differ because the two tests vary slightly in difficulty. Now that we’ve covered the equating process and how the overall PSAT is scored, let’s take a closer look at PSAT scoringfor Math and EBRW. Prepare to enter the math vortex! Vroooooom! Your PSAT Math Score Math consists of two subsections: a No Calculator section consisting of 17 questions and for which you may not use a calculator, and a Calculator section consisting of 31 questions and for which you may (but don’t need to) use a calculator. Your Math score begins as a total raw score out of 48 (the total number of questions on Math).Here are the steps for calculating your Math section score using your raw score: 1. Calculate your raw Math scores for each subsection. Start by adding up all of your correct answers on the No Calculator and Calculator subsections using the answer key for your test. On official practice tests, your Math answer key will look something like this: 2. Add your rawscores together togeta total raw Mathscore out of 48.So if I got 10 questions right on the No Calculator subsection and 22 questions right on the Calculator subsection, my total raw Math score would be 32. 3. Find your Math section score using your test’s scoring chart. Your test should offer a conversion table for calculating your Math section score. In my example, I’d find 32 on my test’s conversion table and look for itscorresponding scaled score (which, in this case, is 620): If you’re not using an official practice test and/or don't have a PSAT scoring chart for your test, you can use the two conversion tables at the beginning of this articleto estimate how your raw Math score will convert into a scaled score. For example, let's say you have a raw Math score of 40. According to our tables for Practice Tests #1 and #2, 40 on Math converts into either 670 or 720. This means that your Math section score is likely somewhere around the high 600s or low 700s. Time tomove on to Reading and Writing! (Am I dating myself with a pic of actual encyclopedias?) Your PSAT EBRWScore YourEBRW score is a combination of your Reading and Writing scores, which are at first given to you as two separate scores. Your Reading score startsas a raw score out of 47, whereas your Writing score is out of 44. These are then converted into test scores and then finally a combined EBRW section score. In contrast with the relatively simple process for finding your Math score, finding your EBRW score requires a couple of extra steps. Here’s how to calculate it: 1. Calculate your raw Reading and Writing scores.Use your practice test's answer key to add up all of the correct answers you got on Reading and Writing. Be sure you add these scores up separately - you won’t be combining them until later. Here’s an example of an answer key for the Reading and Writing sections: 2. Find your Reading and Writing test scores. Unlike the Math raw score, which immediately converts into a scaled section score out of 760, the Reading and Writing scores will first convert into individual test scores on a scale of 8-38. So if my raw score were 35 for Reading and 38 for Writing, my Reading and Writing test scores would, according to the chart below, convert into 31 and 33, respectively: 3. Combine your Reading and Writing test scores to get a total EBRW test score.In the example I used above, my Reading test score was 31 and my Writing test score was 33; thus, my total EBRW test score would be 64. 4. Multiply your EBRW test score by 10 to get your section score. This final step converts your EBRW test score into a scaled EBRW section score out of 760. This means that my test score of 64 would equal a final EBRW score of 640. Not bad! Disappointed with your PSAT performance? Want to improve your PSAT score by 150 points? We have the industry's leading PSAT prep program. Built by Harvard grads and SAT full scorers, the program learns your strengths and weaknesses through advanced statistics, then customizes your prep program to you so you get the most effective prep possible. Check out our 5-day free trial today: Once you’re finished calculating your scaled scores for both Math and EBRW, add the two scores together to get your composite PSAT score out of 1520. If you want, you can compare your score to the current PSAT percentiles to get a feel for where you stand in comparison with other test takers. These next scores are like the cherry on top: some people love them, and some people couldn't care less about them. PSAT Subscores and Cross-Test Scores In addition to Math and EBRW section scores, you’ll also be given separate subscores and cross-test scores (the same ones you’ll get on the SAT). These additional scores break down the three sections into smaller categories in order to highlight your strengths and weaknesses in specific skill areas. Below, I explain how to calculate these subscores andgo over what they mean for you. Your PSAT Subscores On the PSAT, you'll receiveseven subscores: For EBRW Command of Evidence Words in Context Expression of Ideas Standard English Conventions For Math Heart of Algebra Problem Solving and Data Analysis Passport to Advanced Math Each subscore is scored on a scaleof 1-15. These subscores indicate how well you've performed on designated skill areas, such as vocabulary and data analysis. To calculate your subscores, use your practice test’s subscore answer key, taking care to note which questions fall under which subscore categories. Scoring guides for official PSAT practice tests offer detailed descriptionsfor each subscore, explaining what the subscore measures and which questionsit comprises. Here's an example: Once you’ve tallied your correct answers for each subscore, you will then convert this raw score into a scaled subscore using your test’s scoring chart for subscores: Although these subscores are useful for deciphering your own strengths and weaknesses, in the end they’re not especially significant. As it stands, subscores don’t factor into your PSAT section scores or even your overall PSAT score. They also aren’t used to select candidates for the National Merit Scholarship Program (which we’ll get into more in a moment). Your PSAT Cross-Test Scores Cross-test scores indicate how well you've answeredquestions in thedomains of history/social studies and science. Unlike the subscores above, cross-test scores are not section specific; rather, they apply to all sections and use a scoring scale of 8-38. The two types of cross-test scores are: Analysis in History/Social Studies Analysis in Science To calculate your cross-test scores, use your test’s scoring guide to see which Math and EBRW questions comprise these two categories as well as how many questions you answered correctly (i.e., your raw score). Here’s an example of a cross-test score answer key for Analysis in Science: Once you’ve figured out your raw scores, use the cross-test scoring chartthat came with your test to calculate your scaled cross-test scores: Now here's a score that's actually worth something! Your National Merit Selection Index Score The final score you’ll receive on the PSAT is a National Merit Scholarship Corporation (NMSC) Selection Index score. The Selection Index score uses a score range of 48-228 and is equivalent to the sum of your Reading, Writing, and Math test scores (that is, the ones on scales of 8-38) multiplied by 2. So if my three test scores were 34, 30, and 27, my Selection Index score would be: 34+30+27=91 91*2=182 The NMSC uses Selection Index scores to determine your eligibility for the National Merit Scholarship Program. This program offers an extremely prestigious distinction and scholarship to students with exceptionally high PSAT scores. Each year, the top 1 percent of PSAT scorers in the 11th grade - equal to about 16,000 students - become Semifinalists. Of those students, 15,000 will become Finalists. And of those students, 8,000 will each win a $2,500 scholarship! The Selection Index score you need in order to be aSemifinalistvaries by state but usually ranges anywhere from 209 to 222.See our guidefor an updated list of Selection Index score cutoffs by state. 4 Tips for Usingthe PSAT Scoring System to Your Advantage So far, we've addressed nearly everything you need to know about the PSAT scoring scale. But what can you actually gain from it? Here are four simple ways you can use PSAT scoring to your advantage. #1: Set a PSAT Goal Score Using Selection Index Cutoffs Ifyou want to try to qualify as a Semifinalist for the National Merit Scholarship Program, you can use the Selection Index score cutoffs to set a PSAT goal score. Remember that the cutoffs vary by state, so it’s important you aim for your state’s cutoff and not a different state’s! According to our estimates, the lowest cutoff is 209 (equivalent to a total PSAT score of about1400) and the highest is 222 (equivalent to about 1480). For a detailed list of Selection Index score cutoffs and their (estimated) corresponding PSAT scores, refer to my article on thePSAT score range (coming soon). Let's look at an example. Jackie lives in Florida, whose Selection Index cutoff score is 217. This gives her a PSAT goal score of about 1450. To get her individual goal scores for Math and EBRW, Jackie divides her total PSAT goal score by 2. This gives her goal scores of 730 (rounded up from 725) for each section. If you’re stronger at Math or Reading/Writing, consider aiming for a higher score on your stronger section and a slightly lower score on your weaker section. So if Jackie were better at Math, she could instead aim for something like 750 on Math and 700-710 on EBRW. #2: Use Tables to Estimate the Number of Correct Answers You'llNeed If you've got a PSAT goal score in mind, you can usescoring chartsfrom official practice tests to estimate how many questions you’ll need to answer correctly in order to hit your goal score on test day. This process is somewhat complicated but extremely helpful to know how to do. Let's say your PSAT goal score is 1400, and you want to aim for 700 on both Math and EBRW. Using the tables above for Practice Tests #1 and #2, we see that 700 on Math comes out to 39-42 correct answers. (Remember, your raw score = the number of questions you answered correctly.) There are more steps for EBRW, however.First, divide your goal score (in this case, 700) by 10 to get your total Reading and Writing test score. This gives us 70. Then, divide this number in half to estimateyour individual Reading and Writing test scores. In our case, 70/2=35. Finally, convert your test scores into raw scores using the conversion tables above. In our example,a 35 Reading test score equals 41-42 correct answers, and a 35 Writing test score equals 40 correct answers. This process of working backward, albeittime-consuming, is useful because it offers a rough idea ofhow many questions you can afford to get wrong on the PSAT. It also lets you estimate what yourfinal PSAT scores will be before they’re released, thereby letting youpredict whether you’ll qualify for National Merit. I prefer estimating how many peeps I can fit in my mouth. Aiming for a National Merit Scholarship but worried your score won't qualify? If you're not sure you can self-study your way to a qualifying PSAT score, you'll love our PSAT prep program, PrepScholar. We designed our program to learn your strengths and weaknesses through advanced statistics and customize your prep to be as effective as possible for you. When you start with PrepScholar, you’ll take a diagnostic that will determine your weaknesses in over forty PSAT skills. PrepScholar then creates a study program specifically customized for you. To improve each skill, you’ll take focused lessons dedicated to each skill, with over 20 practice questions per skill. This will train you for your specific area weaknesses, so your time is always spent most effectively to raise your score. We also force you to focus on understanding your mistakes and learning from them. If you make the same mistake over and over again, we'll call you out on it. There’s no other prep system out there that does it this way, which is why we get better score results than any other program on the market. Check it out today with a 5-day free trial: #3: Consider Your PSAT Score a Starting Point to SAT Prep Your PSAT scores are important butnot nearly as important as your SAT scores, especially if you’re hoping to get into a top-tier university. Luckily, the PSATwas specifically designed to prepare studentsfor the SAT! We already know that the twotests use different scoring scales, with the PSAT being out of 1520 and the SAT out of 1600. But here's the kicker: each scaled score on the PSAT corresponds directly to the same scaled score on the SAT. This means thatany score you get on any PSAT or SAT will signifythe samelevel of ability. So 1400 on the PSAT equals 1400 on the SAT, 1250 equals 1250, 1000 equals 1000, etc. But if this is the case, why does the PSAT scoring scale only go up to 1520 and not 1600? The reason for this is that the PSATis not as challenging as the SAT. Toaccount for its lower difficulty level, then, the PSATemploys aslightly lower maximum of 1520 (which is not a perfect SAT score but close). Despite these connections, don’t consider your PSAT score a direct indicator of what your SAT score will be. Your PSAT score tells you where you’re currently scoring but not where you’re capable of scoring. In other words, think of your PSAT score as your baseline SAT score (i.e., the score you start off with before you begin anySAT prep). Then, once you have your SAT goal score, too, you can use both of these scores to calculate how many points you’ll need in order to hit your goal score on test day. #4: Use PSAT Scores and Subscores to Target Potential SAT Weaknesses What’s great about the PSAT is that it’s similar to the SAT - so much so that its section scores and subscores are the same ones you’ll get on the SAT. Therefore, you can use your PSAT scores to see what your SAT weaknesses are likely to be. For example, ifyou received a low Heart of Algebra subscore on the PSAT, it's a good idea to dedicate a lot of your SAT prep to mastering the basics of algebra. Or if you didn’t get a high Words in Context subscore, you'll probably want to spend more time improving your reading comprehension skills and fine-tuning your vocabulary knowledge. Knowing what to focus on for your SAT prep will not only help you hone your weaknesses but also help you attain an SAT score farhigher than your PSAT score! Recap:How Is the PSAT Scored? The total PSAT scoring scale is 320-1520, and the Math and EBRW scoring scale is160-760. The Math and EBRW section scores are scaled scores converted from raw scores through a special equating process, which changes slightlywith each test. Raw scores equalthe number of questions you answered correctly.A raw Math score converts directly into a scaled section score, whereas raw Reading and Writing scores are converted into test scores on a scale of 8-38,combined, and then multiplied by 10 to give you a single scaled EBRW score. ThePSAT also offers subscores and cross-test scores to indicate test takers' strengths and weaknesses in various skillareas. Subscores use a scale of1-15, while cross-test scores use a scale of8-38. The final score you'll get is a National Merit Selection Index score, which uses a scale of 48-228. This score determines who is eligible for National Merit consideration. Every year, the top 1 percent of 11th-grade test takers, or approximately 16,000 students, qualify as Semifinalists. Knowing the ins and outs ofPSAT scoring can help you qualify for National Merit as well as predicthow many questions you can afford to miss on test day. It can also offeryou a starting point for yourSAT prep and allow you to see which skills and areasyou'll need to honebefore taking the SAT. All in all, PSAT scoring is a pretty useful tool to have, so use it to your advantage whenever you can! PSAT scoring is a handytool - though not nearly as handy as Colonel Mustard's wrench. What’s Next? Want to learn more about PSAT scoring?Check out my in-depth guide to thePSAT score rangeto learn more about the score ranges for each section as well as the scores you'll need to qualify for National Merit. Got questions about the basics of the PSAT?Learn what exactly the PSAT is and what's considered a good score.If you're asophomore,read our guide to see how "good" scores differ for 10th graders. Ready to move on to SAT prep?Start with our guide to how the SAT is scored and learn about the basic differences between the PSAT and SAT, so you'll have no surpriseson test day. Disappointed with your scores? Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points?We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Monday, October 21, 2019

Criminal Justice Midterm Essay Example

Criminal Justice Midterm Essay Example Criminal Justice Midterm Essay Criminal Justice Midterm Essay Many people of history lived in limited geographical colonies that were independent, close-knit entities called: Question 5 In the 1 asses the security personnel providing protections for the American Express Company were known as shotgun riders. Question 6 What type of model of policing that has evolved in the U. S. Is where there is no national police force and many local and state agencies? Question 7 Jim Crow laws originated in the Southern states as means of segregating the races, but they soon became popular in the Northern states as well Question 8 The U. S government structure is tactically described as a(n): Question 9 1 out Of 1 points A society formal attempt to obtain compliance with the established rules, regulations, and law of that society is called: Question 10 The primary policing function in the U. S. Is to : Question 11 Article IV of the U. S. Constitution that states the individuals states shall not make any laws that AR contrary to those laws outlined by the IS. S. Constitution Question 12 O Out Of 1 points Which of these is considered to be a formal mechanism for social control? Question 13 The system of government founded on the principle of the rule of the people is called: Question 14 According to Luther Click, an individuals span of control should be relatively small, no more than a few people. Question 15 Many of the first police department in the U. S. Were structured after the Metropolitan Police of London. Question 16 Legislative branch officials include the President of the United States at the federal level, governors at the state level, and mayors at the local level. Question 17 Police departments are typically organized so that personnel functions determine organizational division. Question 18 There is evidence that organizational theory, or issues surrounding the practice of organizing, was present during the time of the ancient Greeks and Romans. Question 19 Most social control problems can be solved by passing and enforcing criminal laws. Question 20 The system theory perspective is one that recognizes multiple factors within the organization in an attempt to identify which factors are most relevant the impact of said factors and viewed as open systems. Question 21 The contingent leadership model suggests that patrol officers and supervisor are both leaders and can learn skills to become more effective at leading. Question 22 1 out of 1 point Female police officers were originally hired with the intent that they would assist in the problems related to women and juveniles. Question 23 The Judicial branch of the U. S. Government typically reviews the actions Of police offices during which judicial proceeding? Question 24 The theory that organizational arrangements in a structural sense, much like map and the subject of scrutiny includes how an organization should be structured, task division, personnel assignment control levels is called Scientific Management Theory. Question 25 When police officers attempt to follow the spirit-of the law the means: Question 26 Service as a night watchman or constable was primarily a voluntary duty of the adults males of the community in colonial America. Question 27 It is generally believed by most criminal justice professionals that a greater number of laws in society will lead to a greater respect for the law and a more orderly society. Question 28 During the reconstruction Period following the Civil War, many states in the South began to enact laws that specifically spelled out the rights and responsibilities of the newly freed slaves; these laws were called : Reformation Codes. Question 29 When a law enforcement officers responsible ¶y and right to investigate is limited ( or restricted) by laws to certain matters, it called : Question 30 As of 2000, there were approximately how many local and state levels sworn police officers in the U. S.. Question 31 Originally, vigilantism was based on the premise of self-preservation and self- retention and it was Often encouraged and supported by the best Of citizens. Question 32 All of these are federal law enforcement agencies except: Question 33 A process by which society encourage or enforces compliance with social norms, customs, and laws is called: Question 34 The judicial branch of the government reviews the actions of police officials according to the established rules of constitutional law, criminal procedure, and evidence. Question 35 Which city has the largest local level police department in the U. S. : Question 36 Although she was not the first female police officer in the U. S. Tit full police powers, Alice Stabbing Well was the first president of the International Association of Policewomen in 1915. Question 37 One of the more important theorists was Frederick Taylor was developed the Scientific Management Theory that focused on breading down tasks into its smallest parts to determine the most efficient ways of performing the task. Question 38 The is an approach that views behavior from a rule based philosophy, in that the lava is p aramount, and it is guide for behavior that everyone must allow. Question 39 Frederick Taylor was the primary advocate of an organizational theory known as bureaucracy. Question 40 The size of an organization and the role of an organization are directly related to the way it is organized. Question 41 Weepers main purpose for scientific management was to directly link skill and productivity to pay. Question 42 Which Constitutional Amendment indicated that the power not delegated to the U. S. By the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people ( Hint: states rights amendment)? Question 43 Which of these was function of vigils (night watchers) appointed by Augustus in Rome?

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Physical Therapy Scholarship Contest Example Essay

Physical Therapy Scholarship Contest Example Essay Free Online Research Papers Physical Therapy Scholarship Contest Example Essay In 2001 a friend of mine introduced me to the martial art, Ba Gua Zhang. I had always been interested in martial arts and so I began studying Gao style Ba Gua with Jeff Jones here in Atlanta. I’m not exactly sure what my initial motivation for starting Ba Gua had been; I believe it was a combination of intrigue with the arts and a desire to reduce stress, but by studying with Jeff I got a lot more than I had bargained for. It is in studying with Mr. Jones that I ultimately came to be interested in Oriental Medicine. Mr. Jones takes a holistic approach to teaching Ba Gua. He teaches not only the fighting form and application of the art, but also explains the health benefits of the forms, massage techniques, and Qi Gong exercises. His teaching has led me to acquire a valuable understanding of myself, and in engaging in Ba Gua I have developed an important awareness of my body. By this I mean that I have made a shift from feeling like a mind that walks around in a shell of a body, to a mindful being that is intimately connected to her physical body. As in Yoga, where one’s attention is intently focused on feeling, experiencing, and personally understanding what is happening when positioned in a specific asana, Jeff urges his students to be as attentive and â€Å"in one’s body† when practicing Ba Gua. I am beginning to understand my own body on a deeper level, and not necessarily by what I am being told, but by what I am discovering for myself. I attempt to understand what goes on within me as I move through the forms, use breathing techniques, and meditate. This new found interest in the dynamic relationship of my mind, body, and soul has led me to further investigation. Since I began studying Ba Gua I have read many books on martial arts, in particular the internal styles, many of which comment on aspects of Oriental Medicine. I have also read books on Taoism and holistic health. I began attending a Qi Gong class (Da Dao Chan) offered in the area, run biweekly, and do some yoga and weight training. All of this practice and investigation for personal purposes evolved into an interest in the possibility of pursuing a career that is in some way related to these interests. During my attendance at Georgia State University I took advantage of the free career counseling made available by the school. I spent the summer of 2003 taking personality and interest tests, and meeting with a career counselor on a weekly basis. With the help of the test results and the counseling sessions, I narrowed my career search to psychology and physical therapy. However, I was still not quite happy with the idea of being a psychologist or physical therapist. It wasn’t until September of 2003, when I went to visit an Oriental Doctor, that I considered the field of Oriental Medicine as an option. I was impressed by his keen perception as well as the effectiveness of the treatment. It seems that Oriental Medicine would be a perfect match for me in that it is a culmination of all my interests. My interest in the physical therapy of the body would be met in the nature of Tui na. I also expect that my interest in Psychology would be met because of the field’s intimate consideration of the human emotions and psyche in diagnosing and treating illness. Furthermore, Edgewood would provide a great environment to further investigate and understand Taoist thought and the dynamic nature of Qi. Research Papers on Physical Therapy Scholarship Contest Example EssayThree Concepts of PsychodynamicStandardized TestingEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenHip-Hop is ArtInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductThe Spring and AutumnQuebec and CanadaGenetic EngineeringResearch Process Part One

Saturday, October 19, 2019

To Drink or Not To Drink Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

To Drink or Not To Drink - Assignment Example A person should have the capability to express their independent choice to drink, as long as they are aware of all the consequences. Where a person is informed about the consequences of taking alcohol and weighs them against their need to feel peer and general social acceptance, they are in a position to make autonomous decisions (Abaunza 1). The decision to consume alcohol should be considered as an authentic choice, rather than an independent one or simply a competent one. Although making an authentic choice does not guarantee that there will be good consequences, it does at least hint at an increase in the chances that an individual will experience better outcomes. Therefore, with regards to drinking, the choice should be encouraged and informed by a deeper acknowledgement of the relationships and situations that an individual finds him or herself. An individual cannot simply purport to make an independent choice on whether to take alcohol because it is not an impulsive one, especially because they are under social and peer influence (Abaunza 1). Whatever choice is made, they are meant to consider its consequences, whether good or bad. If the individual is to make their choice based on peer or social pressure, this is the environment they will be in for the rest of their lives. Therefore, the values and beliefs that t hey follow to gain social and peer acceptance will also guide future choices (Abaunza 1). In this case, despite the fact that decision-making is influenced by many factors with regards to drinking, the individual will be reliant on the same values and beliefs for the rest of his/her life. Making the decision on whether to drink is rarely a competent choice because consuming alcohol impairs an individual’s neuro-cognitive functioning (Abaunza 1). However, even though alcohol negates an individual’s ability to make an autonomous choice, invoking

Friday, October 18, 2019

Political culture and public opinion, the media Essay

Political culture and public opinion, the media - Essay Example Another influential body towards the public opinion forming is the media. Through the media information about various governments, operations are made available to the citizens and thus resulting in a change in their ideas considering the information relayed. One major attribute of the "new media" age is the ability to facilitate interactions among citizens, public officials, and media personnel through communication technologies (Lasser, 2012). Citizens are now able to share their opinions and play more significant roles in political happenings and also a feel for their political existence is considered an example being call-ins in various televised news programs and thus democracy is not in a crisis. The senate’s handling of the Anita Hill controversy shows that the Congress and its members care less about the public opinion. This is due to the fact many women were shocked as Anita Hill`s allegations were not taken keenly by a Senate that was highly male

The Reglatory & Econ Envirnmnt Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

The Reglatory & Econ Envirnmnt - Essay Example Gist includes supply chain services and management mainly in the UK (Lines of Business online). Being a capital-intensive business, BOC's profitability hinges on its sustained investment in technology to develop new products and services across all businesses and novel uses for existing products, as well as to design efficient methods for manufacturing industrial gases such that economies of scale could be achieved (Annual Report and Accounts 2005: Group Profile, 16; Annual Report and Accounts 2005: Risk Factors, 39). For example, for its PGS business segment, better plant reliability has led to a 16 per cent improvement in total revenue and an 11 per cent increase in total adjusted operating profit for the first half of 2006 (BOC Interim Report 2006, 2). Other than plant reliability, investment in new production facilities will also affect the profitability of PGS as such investments are critical in securing long-term supply contracts (Annual Report and Accounts 2005: Group Profile, 18). For the ISP business, BOC is planning the construction of a helium production plant in Au stralia. When completed, it will be only one of its kind in Australia (Annual Report and Accounts 2005: Group Profile, 20). This monopoly of the Australia market should be beneficial to profits. Furthermore, state-of-the-art technology to efficiently use power has delivered tremendous savings (Annual Report and Accounts 2005: Social, Environmental and Ethical Performance, 31). Technology can also be viewed from the perspective of its customers. Technological developments in industries where customers operate can increase the profitability of BOC. For example, success with major flat panel fabs in Korea has led to a soar in materials consumption and equipment demands, which brings about the strong vacuum equipment market share (Annual Report and Accounts 2005: Research, Development and Information Technology, 36; Merrill Lynch Chemicals Conference, 12). On the economic front, energy costs are particularly influential on profits, especially for PGS (BOC Interim Report 2006, 2) and ISP (BOC Interim Report 2006, 2). Domestic revenue depends on the manufacturing economy and pension costs (BOC Interim Report 2006, 2), while revenue and profit in the US and Canada hinges on demand from the oil and gas sector in the western region (BOC Interim Report 2006, 2). Exchange rate movements are also particularly influential on profitability (Annual Report and Accounts 2005: Operating Review, 40; BOC Interim Report 2006, 3) since BOC operates worldwide such as the UK, US, Europe, China, Asia, Australia, and Africa (Annual Report and Accounts 2005: Group Profile, 18; BOC Interim Report 2006, 2-3). Lastly, BOC is affected by the semiconductor business cycle as manufacturers in the semiconductor industry form the bulk of BOC Edwards' customer base, and BOC Edwards' profitability is directly influenced by the demand of these manufacturers for vacuum e quipment, services and industrial gases (Annual Report and Accounts 2005: Risk Factors, 38) There are many factors in the legal environment that are particularly influential on BOC's profitability. These factors include compliance with accounting, safety, health and environmental regulations and laws. They are discussed in the

Thursday, October 17, 2019

An Appraisal of Martin Parr's 'Think of England' Publication Essay

An Appraisal of Martin Parr's 'Think of England' Publication - Essay Example Residents and workers in the areas surrounding the Chernobyl Power Plant were exposed to radiation levels one hundred times higher than the Hiroshima Bomb. At the publication date of Legacy, and still today in 2009, Chernobyls menacing results are still very evident. Darwells photographs ultimately offer a thoughtful and skilled presentation of a series of polarities: the visible effects of the invisible radiation; the simultaneous presence and absence of humanity; the past and the future of the Chernobyl area. It will be thousands of years before the decaying isotopes will allow safe habitation. The inside cover of Legacy is made up of dark grey letters on light grey paper with an alphabetic SPREAD of words, such as Atom Bomb, Beryllium, Black Rain, Cancer, and Chernobyl (depicted in white). The list ends with the words The Nuclear Age, also in white. Darwell’s choice of colors, or better yet, lack of color, allows the important words to jump off the page as the reader opens the book. Turning the page, the end paper reads; LEGACY - photographs inside the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and offer a kind of warning or foreshadowing of what is to come in the following pages. This definitely sets a tone for the book, and creates a mood before the pictorial tour begins. Elegantly stretching it’s metal spires upwards to the sky, the Chernobyl Power Plant towers appear graceful and architectural, like latticed works of sculpture. Set against a violet sky, its black silhouette resembles the framework of an erecting cathedral. During the race to harness nuclear energy, these towers were considered to be visions of progress and hope for the future. Darwell’s photographic distance from the subject succeeds in juxtaposing its skeletal beauty against its cataclysmic destructive force. How ironic that a structure that caused so much death and

Business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 11

Business - Essay Example As the Sjostrand and Tyrstrup (2001) reaffirm ‘leadership is all about managing creativity’. Thus, any new business needs to be conceptualized in terms of the changing paradigms of business environment. It is also important to identify factors and issues that would help meet the challenges with efficiency and unmatched proficiency. Hence, vision and mission of the business become intrinsic part of conceptualization of a business. Friendly Coffee Bar (FCB) would enter into this field with the express vision of being a one point service provider for quality coffee, prepared to satisfy the tastes of their customers ensuring adequate consideration to the environmental imperatives and social responsibilities. The mission statements of the Friendly Coffee Bar are designed to meet the needs and requirements of the customers through well planned strategy which would help fulfil the long term vision of the organization. Become the best service provider in the field of fresh coffee and deliver services in the hi-tech ambience providing relaxing environment with background music, television with headset, books and journal so that people can de-stress in comfort in short time. FCB would be a trendy, state of the art coffee shop that would provide quality and fresh coffee to its target customers. The outlet would also educate people about the qualities of the coffee from different laces and fine techniques of roasting coffee beans to generate the distinct aroma, thus establishing personal relationship with the customers. Special consideration would be paid to the needs and requirements of the customers. The formation of the shop would be a proprietorship enterprise under the service industry, specializing in soft drinks and beverages. Compliance under the state laws and local development agency would be followed, ensuring quality service at competitive prices. The fast changing socio economic

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

An Appraisal of Martin Parr's 'Think of England' Publication Essay

An Appraisal of Martin Parr's 'Think of England' Publication - Essay Example Residents and workers in the areas surrounding the Chernobyl Power Plant were exposed to radiation levels one hundred times higher than the Hiroshima Bomb. At the publication date of Legacy, and still today in 2009, Chernobyls menacing results are still very evident. Darwells photographs ultimately offer a thoughtful and skilled presentation of a series of polarities: the visible effects of the invisible radiation; the simultaneous presence and absence of humanity; the past and the future of the Chernobyl area. It will be thousands of years before the decaying isotopes will allow safe habitation. The inside cover of Legacy is made up of dark grey letters on light grey paper with an alphabetic SPREAD of words, such as Atom Bomb, Beryllium, Black Rain, Cancer, and Chernobyl (depicted in white). The list ends with the words The Nuclear Age, also in white. Darwell’s choice of colors, or better yet, lack of color, allows the important words to jump off the page as the reader opens the book. Turning the page, the end paper reads; LEGACY - photographs inside the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and offer a kind of warning or foreshadowing of what is to come in the following pages. This definitely sets a tone for the book, and creates a mood before the pictorial tour begins. Elegantly stretching it’s metal spires upwards to the sky, the Chernobyl Power Plant towers appear graceful and architectural, like latticed works of sculpture. Set against a violet sky, its black silhouette resembles the framework of an erecting cathedral. During the race to harness nuclear energy, these towers were considered to be visions of progress and hope for the future. Darwell’s photographic distance from the subject succeeds in juxtaposing its skeletal beauty against its cataclysmic destructive force. How ironic that a structure that caused so much death and

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Many Nations Native Americans Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Many Nations Native Americans - Essay Example There is a group of Cherokee people that want to stay in their homelands spearheaded by Principal Chief John Ross. The opposition to the removal of the Cherokees was justifiable and was based on a valid argument. Initially, all the Cherokees were united in opposing the removal from their ancestral homelands. Even after the 1832 court ruling that Cherokees should be allowed to live in their ancestral lands, the government has not heeded. The land lottery that was enacted in 1830 is being implemented, where citizens of Georgia are the beneficiaries of the Cherokee’s land. The Cherokees attempted to fight for themselves with the government on the opposition. Despite some of the Cherokees having no hope in that they will regain their land, a group of them was totally opposed to the removal. One of the strong believers that the Cherokees should not be removed from their homeland was Principal Chief John Ross. He had support from the majority of the people. However, a rift among the people created instability to the Cherokee government. Various advantages helped the group that was opposed to the removal to be dominant and stronger. Firstly, under the Principal Chief John Ross they had a control of the Cherokee government. This means that rebels were thrown out of the government once they were known. Secondly, they were the majority; in this case, the people behind Principal Chief John Ross were much more than those that attempted to collaborate. This ensured that the rebellion became stronger. Thirdly, the elite among the Cherokees supported non-removal. These include Principal Chief John Ross, his brother among other leaders that were more enlightened. Despite their concerted efforts, the non-removal delegation was defeated because both the federal and state governments supported it. Upon the ratification of the Treaty of new Echota by the Senate, the battle was lost despite the push by Ross and his leadership. In

Morality and God Essay Example for Free

Morality and God Essay Morality only exists if we believe in God; therefore if God doesn’t exist there is no morality. There have been so many evil acts committed in the name of God that it is difficult to maintain that a belief in God equates to morality. There are situations that happen every day where decisions are made based off of human rights that contradict the word of God. Morality comes from within, it is an understanding of right versus wrong and the ability to choose what is right. Knowing all this a belief in God is not a requirement for a person to be moral. (Mosser, 2011) We are taught that morals are basically the difference between right and wrong. A child may be taught that stealing is wrong because it hurts the store owner and can ruin the child’s reputation. Or the child may be told that if they steal they will be punished because God is always watching. The child has learned the fundamental difference between right and wrong, even if the reasoning is different. This will allow the child to make moral decisions when they grow up whether it is based off of human compassion or fear of God. If we accept that the child understands right from wrong regardless of their reason, we accept that God is not a requirement to be a moral person. If a person observes an act of violence or torture, they are morally required to stop it. In biblical times these acts were not only accepted but encouraged by the bible. Today, a person would not ignore these things simply because they did not believe in God. There are human rights that we believe each person is entitled to and someone with good morals would help out another person in need because it is the right thing to do. If it turned out that God does not exist, violence and torture would not suddenly become acceptable. (Mosser, 2011) Mass acceptance of a belief does not make it right. Ancient religions that believed in numerous gods have been pushed aside as fairy tales, for the more widely accepted belief in a single God. During their time those gods were prayed to just as fervently as today’s God. What was accepted as true back then is now known as a fable, and the laws of the day have been wiped away and replaced with our modern laws. These laws were put in to place to punish people who do wrong to others. They have become the moral balance. If you do wrong you will be punished, if you continue to do what is right you will live unmolested and enjoy your freedoms. God is not a requirement for someone to act morally, because there are earthly punishments for crimes. There is no right or wrong without God because He determines what is right and wrong. Moral standards cannot be enforced without God to ensure that we are punished or rewarded for our acts. Someone who does not believe in God may change their morals to whatever suits them at the time. We have been given guidelines by God on what is morally acceptable, and informed of the punishment that comes with being immoral. When an individual does not believe in God they cannot be a moral person, because they have no moral standards. (Millard, A. 2000) The Ten Commandments give us a basic understanding of what is right and wrong. These Commandments along with various scriptures from the bible determine which acts are moral and which are immoral. An individual who witnesses a crime but does not believe in God can simply decide that they are not responsible for stopping the crime. This may lead one to believe that if a non-believer does something right that they have morals. This is not the case, because they could just as easily do wrong and their conscience would have been just as clear. They have no moral compass to tell them that this act is leading them astray from God. (Riskin, S. 2007) If one does not believe in God they cannot know right from wrong and cannot do what is right because they do not have the understanding. The lack of a belief in God means that rules do not have to be followed. If you do not fear the wrath of God, there is nothing to stop you from committing immoral acts, or any crimes for that matter. Any situation can be overlooked because there is no fear of punishment without a fear of God. Only a person with a firm belief in God can be considered moral because they fear His punishment and desire his reward. God is the only person great enough to enforce moral standards, without his guidance there can be no binding morals. Moral standards come from God and without Him a person cannot be moral. When we talk in absolutes we ignore possibilities that exist outside of our beliefs. There are many examples of individuals that believed in God who acted immorally, as well as examples of people who do not believe in God acting with good morals. Their beliefs do not determine their morality, their acts do. If we are to base morality solely on a belief in God then which believer do we follow? Do we follow the believer who commits crimes, or only the believer who is an upstanding member of society? Adolf Hitler was raised as a Catholic, and in his adult life spoke of his religious beliefs. He wanted to create a pure Germany, through a religion known as positive Christianity. Positive Christianity removed the Jewish elements from the standard Christianity doctrine and replaced them with Nazi philosophy. More than six million Jewish people were killed during the Holocaust in the ideal of positive Christianity. Bill Gates is noted as saying he does not know if there is a God or not, yet he donates billions of dollars to Charity every year. The foundation he formed with his wife to address extreme poverty and poor health in third world countries has brought attention and relief to millions of people across the globe. These acts were not done in the hopes that they would be rewarded, but instead to help the human condition. A general concern about the welfare of our neighbors is not exclusive to God. Not every action is based solely off of a person’s morals. There are many reasons people decide to do things and we cannot judge a person’s moral standing off of a single action. We do not look at Adolf Hitler and say that he is a great moral figure because he believed in God. On the same note we do not look at Bill Gates, a non-believer and say that he is immoral. We look at their actions over time and determine whether or not they acted morally. We know that killing millions of innocent people is immoral; just as we know that helping sick and injured people is moral. Which God you believe in determines what you consider to be moral. Muslims agree that polygamy is acceptable. Protestants and the Jewish believe divorce is acceptable if certain conditions are met. Catholics are strictly against both polygamy and divorce. Which God is morally right? All of these groups worship the same God, so perhaps it is the translation of the word of God that is in question. When we look at this we begin to have a better understanding that God’s contradictory words could bring the thought of what is moral crumbling down. There are many controversial moral endorsements in the bible that are accepted today. There are also commands given that are ignored because they are no longer socially accepted as truth. Exodus 20:13 says we must not kill. However, Leviticus 20:13 tells us that if a man lies with another man he must be put to death. There are many debates and arguments over whether homosexuality is moral, but we overlook the second part of the scripture because it is no longer held as a valid punishment. The times have changed and we cannot murder or we will go to jail. Leviticus 19:19 says it is a sin to wear clothes made from two different types of material. You will be hard pressed to find anyone backing up this claim today. (King James Bible) Many religious people have chosen scripture from the bible to suit their lifestyles over the years, but ignore things that are no longer socially accepted as immoral. They hold others to strict standards on matters that they do not agree on and use verses from the bible to support their viewpoint. If everyone used the internal right versus wrong approach to morality there would be less confusion on which standards we held each other to. It is unfair to condemn someone for something using half of a statement from the bible, and then ignore the rest of the statement because it does not agree with current beliefs. Our faith, lessons from our parents or even witnessing other people’s actions are different reasons to decide what we believe is moral. All three have flaws that can lead to differing views on the same subject. However, at the end of the day there are certain things that everyone accepts as morally right, or morally wrong. These are situations where it does not matter how you learned it, you just know it. Biblical teachings tell us that certain things are acceptable, while others are punishable by death. But in the legal society of America acting on the acceptable things will land you in prison, and the immoral sins are inalienable rights. Every day decisions are made across the world without having to consider if we will be punished by a higher being. These things prove that a person does not have to believe in God to act morally. A moral person is someone who not only understands the difference between right and wrong, but also does what is right. The lack of God in someone’s life doesn’t make a person immoral just as the presence of God does not make someone moral. Morality is not proven by a belief in God. References King James Bible Millard, A. (2000). How reliable is exodus? Biblical Archaeology Review, 26(4), 50-57. Retrieved from http://search. proquest. com/docview/214908737? accountid=32521 Mosser, K. (2011). Logic an introduction. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Riskin, S. (2007). Ten commandments audience? Washington Jewish Week. Retrieved from http://search. proquest. com/docview/220857354? accountid=32521.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Strategies Undertaken By Coca Cola Marketing Essay

Strategies Undertaken By Coca Cola Marketing Essay This report involves a brief description of strategic and comparative advantage. It also involves different kinds of strategies under taken by Coca Cola Company that have led it to be one of worlds market leaders compared to other multi-national companies. The strategic and comparative bases of advantage discussed based. The item that shall be looked is coca cola marketing strategy that has been developed for years and based on situations. The marketing strategy shall involve advertising, market segmentation, Equity investment and Branding. Though these strategies seem to be common in other companies either local or international, Coca-Cola Company implements them in a special way. Consumer market fit: There is a third fit relationship that occurs, fit between consumer and market. This involves the needs and behaviors of consumers under certain market conditions such as specific price points. This relationship between consumer drives and market forces often has direct effect on brand choice. For example a brand might be considered as a good choice to fulfill a particular need or behavior at a particular price that the consumer is prepared to pay, while another brand might not be considered as a good choice for specific combination of need, behavior and price point. The company sets strategies so that it can outperform rivals and it can only do that by establishing a difference in delivering great value to customers or by creating comparable values at a lower cost or do both. Delivering greater value allows a company to charge a high average unit prices and efficiency results into lower average unit costs. All differences between companies in cost or price is derived from hundreds sets of activities required to create, produce, sell and deliver their products or services such as calling on customers, assembling final products and training employees (Porter, 1996) Comparative basis of advantage Deardorff, A. (2003, p. 6) defined Comparative Advantage as the relative cheapness of a good or service in a country that enables that country to export it. More precisely, a country has a comparative advantage in the good whose price in the absence of trade (autarky), relative to other goods in the same country, is lower than the relative price of that same good on world markets. Ricardian Model states that countries have comparative advantage in goods whose labor cost, relative to other goods in the same country, is lower than the relative labor cost of that good abroad. Therefore countries are said to have comparative advantage in a good if its labor requirements are relative to the labor requirement abroad. Ricardian model outlines two theoretical implications of Comparative Advantage and these are: firstly if countries are permitted to trade freely then they are undistorted markets and competitive, they will export the good or goods in which they have comparative advantage and import those in which they have comparative disadvantage, secondly under the same conditions, all countries will gain from trade, in the sense that those individuals who gain from trade within each country will gain enough that they could potentially fully compensate those individuals who lose, within the same country, and still remain better off than in autarky(Deardolff,2003). Business overview Coca-Cola is the largest manufacturer, distributor and marketer of concentrated syrup which is used for the production of non-alcoholic beverages. The company has a span of operations covering over 200 countries since its inception in 1886. It has an annual net income of 6.8 billion and employs the services of around 92,400 associates throughout its operations worldwide (Coca-Cola annual report, 2009). Advertising Advertising can be defined as as any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services through mass media such as newspapers, magazines, television or radio by an identified sponsor (Kotler et al, 2008 p.737). Advertising is a practical way of informing and persuasion as well as a means of stimulating response from a target audience. The response could be perceptual where the consumer develops, believes or views about the product or it could be behavioural where the consumer purchases the product or increases his purchases of the product in question (Kotler et al, 2008). Advertising is a process which gives information to the public about the product. It is persuasive, controlled, and identifiable as well as influences the target audience. The basic objective of advertising is to increase sales volume and profit. We shall look at several types of advertising which runs hand in hand with the advertising objectives. Informative advertising appears at the early stages of a particular product and is meant to develop the primary demand of the customers. Persuasive advertising is applicable at the competitive stage where a selective demand is built for a particular category of product (Kummer and Mittar, 2008). Comparison advertising is used to establish the superiority of a particular brand through the use of evaluation with one or more other brands in the product line. Reminder advertising is used to refresh the memory of the consumer regarding messages, ideas etc of a particular product. Reinforcement advertising is used to assure the current buyers that they made the right choice regarding their decision to buy the product. The advertising objective should not be arbitrary but should be developed after a thorough evaluation of the current market situation (Kummer and Mittar, 2008). Coca Cola advertising Advertising is a major element of the promotion mix. Personal selling, sales promotion, publicity and advertising are the four elements of the promotion mix. Advertising has been thought of as the best method of promotion because it stimulates sales, creates demand and reaches customer quickly and effectively (Kummer and Mittar, 2008). Coca-Cola has over the years consolidated its leadership position as the worlds most famous and largest beverage company with huge investments in advertising targeted at its existing and potential consumers worldwide. Coca-Cola works in partnership with leading advertising agencies and market research institutes the world over to develop effective advertising campaigns that conforms to current trends in information technology like the use of internet based mediums like face book and twitter to connect with technology loving target audience (Coca-Cola annual report, 2009). The successful advertising strategies used by Coca-Cola over the years in their operations shall be analysed.( Wieden and Kennedy,1996 ) an advertising agency that worked in partnership with Coca-Cola for the 1996 summer Olympics in Atlanta Georgia came up with four main advertising strategies designed for Coca-Cola for the summer games namely: a home based strategy, a fan based strategy, a global growth strategy and the Olympic torch relay. The home based strategy used by coke was primarily as a result of the fact that Atlanta is the main headquarters of Coca-Cola and so people in Atlanta would readily identify with the brand since they are well familiar with it. Coca-Cola launched several advertisements for the games which include installing 70 new billboards, several street-pole banners and signs in 9 Marta stations (the citys public transportation system). Coca-Cola created a theme park known as the Coca-Cola Olympic city with countless different coke advertisements including a 165 feet coke bottle in the canter of the park (Wieden and Kennedy, 1996). The companys signature colour red was the main colour seen throughout the Coca-Cola Olympic city. Coca-Cola deviated from the traditional practice of using athletes for advertising for the games to focus instead on a fan-based strategy where commercials, print advertisements and posters where used to demonstrate the difference made to the outcome of the games by the enthusiasm of the fans. Coca-Cola used the games as a global growth strategy used to target the worldwide audience tuned in for the games. Coca-Cola also used one of the most efficient strategies for gaining exposure in advertising history which is the sponsoring of the 1996 Atlanta Olympic torch relay (Wieden and Kennedy, 1996). The impact of Coca-colas advertisements during the Olympics was so immense that people dubbed the event the Coca-Cola Olympics. The event served as a means for the company to effectively advertise its brand to a worldwide audience. In 2003, Coca-Cola used the marketing platform tagged real to enhance the image of the brand through the use of television advertisements. This particular advertising strategy was specifically targeted for the teenagers and young adults with resounding success. In the same year, the tropical sprite remix television advertisements which was intended to increase and reconnect the sprite trademark was also targeted at the young, urban consumer base (Coca-Cola annual report, 2003). In 2006, the make every drop count advertising in the United States was purposely designed to create awareness among consumers on the health benefits of Coca-colas beverage portfolio in a response to growing concerns by consumers regardless of age on health concerns like calorie intake and obesity. The coke side of life campaign which was the first ever integrated marketing campaign for trademark Coca-Cola was intended to signify the unifying role of Coca-Cola in daily life and has performed better than previous Coca-Cola advertisements and was launched in almost 100 markets in 2006 with great success. The happiness factory television commercial is part of this global campaign (Coca-Cola annual report, 2006). In 2009, Coca-Cola commenced the design for advertisement strategies to be used for the 2010 Fifa world cup campaign which included colourful television advertisements for the soccer fiesta in South Africa in 2010 as a means of uniting Coca-colas exuberance with the worldwide love of soccer thereby utilizing the soccer fiesta as a veritable means of connecting with consumers worldwide who have immense passion for the love of football (Coca-Cola annual report, 2009). Coca-Cola develops its advertising campaigns based on a communications strategy that uses means to end research to gain greater insight of current and potential customers and other factors like product attributes, keeping specific marketing goals in mind, taking into account competitive advertising and positioning as well gaining attention and interest by connecting with real needs(Reynolds and Olsen,2008) Market segmentation Market segmentation has been described as essential to marketing(Sheth 1967).Market segmentation implies the division of large heterogeneous markets into smaller segments that can be reached more efficiently and effectively with products and services that match their unique needs(Kotler et al, 2008 .p.410) There is no single way to segment a market. A marketer apparently has to try different segmentation variables alone or in combination in order to come up with how best to view the market. Markets could be segmented into either business markets or consumer markets. Consumer markets entail those markets that deal on products and services that are used directly by the consumers whereas business markets have to do with transfer of products and services from one point to the other. Market segmentation could be based on the following major variables: demographic, psychographic, behavioural, geographic etc. Demographic segmentation entails segmenting the market based on age, gender, income and education. Psychographic segmentation is based on personality, lifestyle and motives of the population involved. Geographic entails segmenting the market on the basis of regions, city or country. Behavioural involves segmenting the market on benefits sought, product usage, price sensibility or situations (Kotler et al, 2008). Coca cola market segmentation Coca Cola Company has been conquering markets worldwide overtime, through its network of Bottlers, distributers and whole sellers, and later joint ventures. The market network has grown to include most of the world territories and this market has been divided into market segments. Coca-Cola the worlds most famous and leading beverage company has been shown in their operations to vary the sweetness level of their product, its size as well as effervescence on local conditions and preferences which implies that the company employs the use of behavioural and geographical variables in their market segmentation strategies the world over (Hart et al,2008). Coca-Cola Company has operating segments on continental basis involving Eurasia and Africa, Europe, Latin America, North America and the pacific areas. This strategy is clearly a geographical approach in terms of market segmentation by Coca-Cola which is influenced by the fact that these different geographical areas will have diverse preferences and wants (Coca-Cola annual report 2009). Coca-Cola market segmentation strategies regarding diverse consumers base starts with a process of understanding consumer trends within the multicultural marketplace and then developing depth and breath communications which is based on that knowledge. The Coca-Cola Company has a diversity business development team which serves the purpose of providing diverse consumers with the right beverage portfolio. In 2009, the diversity business development team worked closely with the multicultural marketing team to develop marketing strategies as well as integrating multicultural elements into general market programmes for greater reach (Coca-Cola annual report 2009). The diversity business development team during this period also identified significant opportunities in emerging markets including Asian and disabled consumers. The Asian consumers were subsequently integrated into the existing framework of communications. Coca- colas multicultural consumer marketing team develops and carries out relevant marketing plans targeted at multicultural consumers while working closely with brand and customer teams as well as the bottling system. Coca-Cola North America had their multicultural consumer marketing team refocused on African-American marketing as well as expanded its reach to Hispanic consumers (Coca-Cola annual report 2009). The company is now in the process of implementing a long term strategy targeted at consumer markets on the basis of ethnicity in the United States. Coca-Cola in North Americas operating segment reported in 2009 positive results in its works with its bottling partners to create price and package strategies that will ultimately strengthen their financial results, provide value for customers and provide consumers with choices that meet their needs. This strategy is apparently based on behavioural variables which puts price and preferences of the consumers into consideration Coca-Cola Company introduced the coke zero brand in response to consumer health concerns regarding excess calorie intake (Coca-Cola annual report 2009). The product did well in the market and in 2009, the company made sales on the product on an excess of 600 million cases globally. Currently there are over 800 low and no- calorie beverages in the Coca-Cola portfolio (Coca-Cola annual report 2009). In 2008, the company and foundation spent around 9million dollars to support active, healthy lifestyle programmes. These strategies by Coca-Cola are geared towards effective market segmentation of the target population on behavioural and psychographic basis putting into account the health choices and lifestyle of the consumers. In order for Coca-Cola to meet the diverse and ever changing beverage needs of its consumers worldwide, the company has intensified efforts to add more value for customers in its portfolio of beverages ranging from added benefits of vitamins and minerals to calorie reductions, new ingredients, sweeteners and taste depending on the preferences and wants of the consumers concerned (Coca-Cola annual report 2009). Coca-Cola also has another segmentation strategy which entails different strategies for developing and developed markets. The companys main strategy for the developed markets like the United States is to maximize value and profit which can be achieved by delivering more value to consumers so that they will continue their patronage of the companys products at a premium price. In this regard, Coca-Cola are growing the core beverages-trademark namely: coke, sprite, fanta, powerade and improving their benefits and value to the customers through adding vitamins and nutrients to reduced or no calorie options(Coca-Cola annual report 2009). In developing markets Coca-Cola devised a strategy of making the products affordable to the consumers; in Brazil the company offers consumers 26 package options for brand Coca-Cola at different brand points to meet the needs of an economically diverse consumer base (Coca-Cola annual report 2009). In 1963, the product tab was launched and was specifically targeted at the female consumers but subsequently the company in order to broaden its customer base by appealing to the men folk as well as the entire family had to introduce diet coke to achieve the above mentioned objectives. In 1983, Coca-Cola introduced the caffeine- free versions of Coca-Cola, diet coke and tab which were specifically targeted at health conscious consumers. Coca-Cola also introduced the minute maid soda which was positioned to attract a market segment that prefers fruit juice as well as health and nutrition conscious consumers (Mochmen and Maze,1998). The Coca-Cola Company today through its market segmentation strategies offers a diverse portfolio of products to identified market segments based on different consumer preferences for flavours, calories and caffeine content effectively which continues to add to their success story globally (Lamb et al, 2008). Equity investment Coca Cola Company has over time been making equity investment in selected bottling companies with the intention of maximising companys strength and efficiency in its systems, production, distribution, and marketing capabilities around the world. The level of investment generally depends on the bottlers capital structure and its available resources at the time of investment. Coca cola Company in some instances finds it necessary to acquire a controlling interest. Such controlling interest allows coca cola Company to compensate for limited local resources and enables it to focus on bottlers sales and marketing programs. Equity investment also assists in the development of bottlers business and information systems and the establishment of appropriate capital structures. One of examples of coca cola equity investment is that of Coca Cola Enterprise Inc. (C.C.E) In 2009, Coca Cola Companys ownership in Coca Cola Enterprise Inc.-bottling company, was 34%. Coca cola Enterprise Inc. is the worlds bottler company of trade mark beverages. The sales of concentrates, syrups, mineral waters, juices, sweeteners and finished products by coca cola Company to C.C.E were approximately 6.6 billion by the year end 2009. The Coca Cola Enterprise Inc. estimates its market beverage products to retailers which include a portion of 46 states of USA, Columbia district of USA, Virgin Islands, Caribbean islands, Canada, Great Britain, Continental France, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium and Monaco. Therefore Coca Companys investment strategy in CCE was to take advantage of this vast market for it to sell concentrates, syrups and different coca cola product brands through C.C.E (Coca cola annual report,2009). Branding Coca cola has many kinds brands sold worldwide. In developing a company brand, coca cola conducts product and packaging research to establish brand positioning, develop precise consumer communication and solicit consumer feedback. The Coca-Cola brand development strategy emphasizes on price, preference, and persuasive penetration (Annual report, 2009) The Coca Cola Company main brand products are Coca cola classic, diet coke and coca cola zero whereas the main branding strategies at Coca Cola Company include but not limited to Joint brand strategy, brand diversification strategy, personal branding strategy, and packaging/redesigning strategy (Annual report, 2009) Joint brand strategy involves a situation in which two different brands are linked to form joint promotion, as a consequence one product may sell the other examples in early 1990s Bacardirum and Coke cola brand were jointly marketed together. Coca cola, the common known brand was used to market Barcadirum, the new product on the market. The benefits of this strategy is that if the first brand name gives a certain quality signal, then the second brand quality signal is believed to be as powerful as the first one, hence attracting more buyers. (Akshadf and Ruekert, 1994) Brand portfolio/diversification strategy: Coca Cola Company continues to diversify its portfolio and growing sales with new and acquired brands. The some of the diversified brands are vitamin-enhanced water energy brand, and its star water brand Glaceau. The powerade and Nestiea iced tea brand products, a joint venture of Coca Cola Company with Nestle. The importance of this strategy is that multiple brands allow the company to offset cokes gradual decline with newer, more appropriate brands while removing future potential rivals through acquisition. The strategy also allows coca cola to maintain relatively large market share irrespective of how market changes (VanAnken and Derick Daye, 2007) Personal branding strategy refers to a set of human characteristics as associated with a brand. Users view it as a key way to differentiate a brand in a product category as a central driver of consumer preference and usage that can be used to market a brand across cultures. In coca cola company personal traits associated with coca cola are Cooling, all-American, and real. These three personal traits differentiate coca cola from its competitors. Besides these traits, Coca Cola Company uses slogans, graphic designs, color schemes and trademarks. As a result of personal branding, different categories of people from different denomination find themselves attracted to the brand hence increasing its demand (Aaker, 1997). Packaging/redesigning strategy: Coca Cola Company keeps on redesigning its packaging and visual identity systems. One of examples is its newly identity visual system for its flagship brand introduced in 2008 and contour aluminum bottle initially commercialized in 2005. The nonalcoholic beverage in this new aluminum bottle attracted many buyers especially in 2005 Olympic Games in Beijing-China. (Butler, 2009) Packaging redesigning also continues making coca cola brand a new product in the face of consumers. The most crucial comparative advantage is that the company has over time built a network bottling partners, wholesalers and distributers spread over in many parts of world. These act as marketing agents of coca cola company products worldwide. Bottling partners pray two major roles, Firstly they act as consumers of the concentrates and syrup which they use in manufacture of coca cola products and later sell these products locally or in foreign market, secondary they act as marketer of company brands. (Annual report,2009) The Coca Cola Company has a unique network of bottling partners, distributers, wholesalers and joint ventures spread all over the world which act as channels through which the company promotes and markets its brands. Coca Cola as a result of operating in partnership or in cooperation with foreign companies, it enjoys economies of scale such as cheap labor, land and transport costs. Transport costs are reduced due to the fact its brands are brought closer to customers through a network of bottling partners, wholesalers and distributers. The coca cola companys leading brands with high level of acceptance, a worldwide network of bottlers and distributers of companys products, sophisticated marketing capabilities and talented group of dedicated associates are unique companys achievements overtime compared to other multi-national organizations. (3970 Words)