Monday, September 30, 2019

Leadership Path-Goal Theory

IntroductionLeadership is a serious task that has to betaken by those who are able to understand the society in an objective way. Certainly, the idea of becoming a leader requires serious thinking.   Becoming a leader requires efforts that start with personal development and adjustments. There are numerous theories and practices that help the hopeful leaders in becoming the person that they want to be. In the paper to follow, a reflection on one’s ability and self-improving processes would be discussed in the view of the author of this paper.Being a leader is a serious task that requires serious effort and determination to adjust on the part of the person who wants to pursue on being a leader in his or her own field of interest. As Peter Northouse refer to leadership as a â€Å"change that would affect the whole personality of an individual†(2006, 16). It is not true that leaders are born, they are made. Through self-restructuring of themselves, the leaders of today h ave sprung out from actually being nothing to becoming influential personalities in the human society.How? Because of their determination to make a change to the society that rooted out from the changes that they had to make on themselves in the first place. This is the reason why in this paper, a self-examination process shall be utilized to learn the importance of self-adjustment in becoming a leader. Leadership is one of the most common practices that is found and applied on the different organizations around the world. The need for governance has mainly increased the pressure on institutions specializing in educating aspiring leaders with the needed skills that they are expected to have when they are already working on their own fields of interest.Leadership for many is a virtue learned through the experience of becoming great followers. It requires effort and ample time before it could be said to be the perfect way of showing leadership.   It could be obviously seen how much the people who are considered leaders in the world are viewed as exemplary people and not as people who knows only to command and drives other to work. When it comes to the business industry, the character involving refined leadership is a must to be possessed by everyone. Yes, as leadership itself has strongly affected the lives of many people in the business industry, it indeed is an important character. The idea of being a leader itself is never that easy. Though, through careful and patient learning in adjusting one’s self to be able to adapt to the necessary needed characters of a leader, a refined leadership is never that impossible to acquire.When it comes to the definition of leadership, many groups or organizations have their own view of the characters and responsibilities involved in being a leader. As for example,   House defines â€Å"leadership† organizationally and narrowly as â€Å"the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members† (House, R. J. 2004: page 15). Indeed, the success of the leader would naturally determine the success of the organization he or she is acquainted with. This is the main reason why many people tend to really deeply learn the art of leadership. Mainly aiming to alleviate the effectiveness of one’s leadership skills, leadership schools and courses were opened especially regarding the business industries. This is the reason why the need for path-goal theory application is an insisted demand upon those individuals who are longing to become effective leaders of the organizations that they are aiming to serve.How the Path-Goal Theory is Effectively UtilizedThe path goal theory is more of a directive motivation on the part of the individuals who are aiming to become leaders of their own groups. The idea is to motivate themselves to motivate others. It is undeniable that people ge t personal motivation from different areas of life. They naturally get influenced by the different systems of understanding that they particularly grow fond of as they deal with the different challenges that they need to face as individuals everyday. These growth sources could be both derived from theoretical assessments of the situation along with the experiential measure of the situation. It is undeniably true that experience itself makes the theoretical background of each individual grow to a more applicable aspect of learning on the part of each person’s growth.Theoretical learning aspects could be sourced out from institutional instructions while that of the actual learning aspect could be sourced out from on the job trainings or from actual based experiences. Self-learned theories could be observed to have the personal impact of insisting administrative practice of leadership upon a person’s life. How could self-assessment be performed by an individual wanting to be an effective leader?Applying Personal Growth in Leading the GroupBeing a leader requires many humane aspects in different personality region. Mainly, it requires psychological stability for holding together the team which is to be lead or the subordinates, mental capacity for making critical reasoning and proper judgment, and sociological for relating with the people within the team. Certain traits aside from these are also much required such as interpersonal charisma and pleasing personality.All of these are vital in leadership because of the main fact that the people within the team will look up to him or her for the decisions, actions and guidance thus his or her responsibility is quite complex and morally challenging (Lashway, 1996). Since being a leader is an important task and it deals with people, performing it involves many moral and ethical aspects and if these issues are in contrast with the leader’s personal values then severe contradictions can occur. Thus, th e personal ethics is important in playing the role of a leader because whatever the leader’s moral values are will reflect to his team thus influencing their performance and relationshipBefore making a decision, critically analyzing the consequences and the action itself will provide some ethical enlightenment to the problem that is being faced. Though taking the job, which is considered unethical, would not compromise the moral values of the person, it will surely affect the conscience and the performance of the person and being a leader, this scenario would not post pleasant environment. Considering the impact of the unethical nature of the company would give the applicant a broader contextual perception of the dilemma. (Center for Ethics and Business, 2006).Thus, by looking at the problem completely then other perspective can be considered such as the consequences that the person can do to influence the ethical position of the company. As a leader in the company, the perso n can establish certain ethical policies that can promote positive outcomes instead of solely focusing on the negative aspect of the company. As an example, making policies and regulation that strongly prohibits smoking among the minors or launching campaigns educating the public regarding ideas of moderate smoking which would increase the pleasant appeal of the company to the society.It may sound very idealistic but it will surely affect the ethical and moral perception of the people with the company thus reflecting positive economic asset to the enterprise itself. A leader has the responsibility to promote the moral values and ethics in his or her work place and this also includes the company’s image itself. By being a leader, a person powers can extend to aspect such as creating an ethical environment regarding the employment he or she pursue with moral adhesion. Instead of seeing a certain job as something unethical, consider a perspective of how a person can make a certa in job ethical for himself or herself and the social community they belong lived in.Dealing with such issues of organizational assistance of truthfully realizing their organization’s worth to the society should be faced with the leader with integrity and power over what is wrong. How does he know what is wrong? The theoretical background that he may have learned from school or other instructional institutions that he has attended may as well serve well in these particular situations. Whereas on the other hand, his personal experiences on the matter could profoundly assist him in making considerable decisions that are bound to do something that is progressive for the entire business.The present world is beset with problems that defy solution. So as to be able to meet the challenges of becoming a fine leader for the majority, this paper then requires personal adjustments on a hopeful leader. As it is believed by Northouse, a leader is someone who has competencies in changing th e society by starting within himself. (2006, 25) Yes, changing the society is a large responsibility. Providing the people of what they need is a vital part of the responsibilities of being a leader.A hopeful leader could not attain the said goals and complete the said responsibilities without working on his personality first. Not unless he is able to reach his best potential as a person would he be able to bring out the best potential on others that could help them attain their dreams as well. Yes, personal development is essential for creating a leader within one’s self. Realizing one’s personal capabilities and limitations would help one recognize that others too have their own limitations and capabilities. People who have the capability of seeing people as persons who are capable of improving and developing are the ones who become successful leaders of the society.Applying the Leadership Concepts as Learned from Theory and ExperienceThere are different issues of le adership that each person faces in terms of organizational administration. It is indeed helpful that one knows how to deal with each situation as one actually differs from the other. There are at least five major ways of leadership that could be applied in this particular situation of personal growth.Model the WayThis particularly refers to the ability of the appointed leaders to become role models for other members of the group. The fact that they are placed in position, means that they have a certain characteristic that is   particularly inspiring. The utilization of the said character shall help the leader set a pattern for others to follow. Once the road has been set, the reality of success is not that hard to foresee.Inspire a Shred VisionUnity is one of the primary reasons behind the success of different organizations. Once each member is able to envision the real goal of the organization as to where they are actually headed to, the inspiration begins. Indeed, everyone has t he right to get involved in what is happening and thus be able to understand where the direction of the group is taking them.Challenge the ProcessChallenging the process does not mean changing the procedures of the organization abruptly. With ample time of adjustment and informing the members of the changes that are to be made, the procedural changes could occur. From this particular way, the organization is beginning to open its doors to other alternatives of meeting the goals of the group. However, to do so, careful planning and examination of the possibilities should be done.Enable Others to ActIncluding other members of the group within the system of procedural arrangements is one type of motivation that makes everyone in the organization feel that they are of great use for the achievement of the group’s goal. Hence, achieving the goals with them leaves them with the satisfaction of work that they primarily expect from the group upon joining.Encourage the HeartSimply invo lving the members within the job are not enough. Leaders ought to encourage their members through making them realize of their worth to the group. To do so, the leaders are expected to be able to figuratively touch the hearts of the members of the group so as to empower them to perform better not only for the organization’s sake but for their own benefit as well.Through the consideration given to the five steps of leadership as enlisted above, it could be expected that the appointed authorities would be equipped with the necessary skills that they need to set a straight path for success for the entire organization. However, to do so, it should be remembered that the effective utilization of empowering communication should be applied as well. Without the existence of the said connection between the leaders, the victory that is being achieved may not become reality at all.ConclusionSetting path-goal theory as a major source of improvement upon organizations is a primary effecti ve process of strengthening the capability of the leaders and of the other members as well to face the different issues that the entire groups need to face with everyday.   This particularly means that the changes that organizations are required to meet every now and then require an ample amount of patience and courage from the leaders. Aside from that, it also requires sturdiness when it comes to decision making on the part of the leaders.The policy of â€Å"what must be implemented must be implemented† should always be carried on through by the leaders with an ample scaling of the ethical values that are involved within the situation. Yes, the fact that leadership is not an easy challenge that needs to be conscientiously met identifies the qualities and the attitudes that leaders or aspiring organizational head personnel should posses. Hence, a leader is then supposed to face the said challenges in full courage and knowledge of the strategies that need to be applied in pa rticular situations that they are to meet.Changes need to happen individually. However, making a leader out of one’s self is not an easy task. As they say, the worst enemy one could ever have is one’s own self. This is why learning the art of leadership requires the determination to do well on the said matter. If one is determined to become the best leader he could be, he should be able to accept self-changes and adjustments to be able to attain the goals of becoming and efficient leader. Hence by becoming individually effective as a leader, the learning of theoretical leadership along with the implication of the learning that one gains from experience could be established well as part of the major aspects of application that could be utilized for establishing a fine practice of leadership as per noted by an individual upon himself and his colleagues as well. Through personal assessment of the matter, motivating people would become an easier task on the part of the lea der himself.References:Bolman, L.G. & Deal, T.E. (2003) Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Howard Garland. Relation of Effort-Performance Expectancy to Performance in Goal-Setting Experiments. Departments of Management and Psychology, The University of Texas at Arlington. Journal of Applied Psychology. 1984, Vol 69, No 1, 79-84.Thomas W. Lee. Explaining the Assigned Goal-Incentive Interaction: The Role of Se/f-Efficacyand Personal Goals. Journal of Management 1997, Vol. 23, No. 4, 541-559.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Design Lab Essay

Investigate the amount of energy given off from liquid fuel cells Calorimeter is a device used to measure the heat of chemical reactions, physical changes and used to determine the amount of heat released or absorb during a chemical reaction. Fuel which is used every day as a source of energy cans combust giving of different amounts of energy. In this experiment the combustion of liquid candle will be used to find the change in temperature of 20 ml beaker of water at different times. Using this experiment, we can used the energy given of by the candle fuel to determine how other fuels used in everyday life gives off energy and how to improve these conditions. Problem: how would change in time affect the temperature of water while heated by a liquid fuel? Hypothesis: if the beaker of water burns for a long time, then the temperature would be greater from the original temperature than the beaker that burns for less amount of time. Procedures: Materials: * Goggles * Apron * Beakers * Water * Flame (candle) * Stopwatch * Pencil * Paper * Ring stands * Lighter * Thermometer * Graduated Cylinder * Wire Gauze Procedure 1. Collected all necessary materials 2. Put on your apron and goggles 3. Set up the beaker in the ring stand on top of the wire gauze 4. Measure about 20 ml of water with the graduated cylinder and place on top of the wire gauze in the ring stand. 5. Using the thermometer measure the temperature of the water and record it under control group. 6. Place the liquid fuel under the beaker and carefully light the candle 7. Using the stopwatch, start the time for one minute and blow out the candle after the minute has passed. 8. After you have blown out the candle, record the new temperature of the water. 9. Wash the beaker completely in the same type of water that was used to fill the beaker for the first one. 10. Then repeat the steps 4-9 two more times for the control group. 11. After doing 3 trials for the control, then Measure about 20 ml of water with the graduated cylinder 12. measure the temperature of the water and record it under 2 minute trial 13. Place the liquid fuel under the beaker and carefully light the candle 14. Using the stopwatch, start the time for 2 minutes and blow out the candle after 2 minutes has passed 15. After you have blown out the candle, record the new temperature of the water. 16. Wash the beaker completely in the same type of water that was used to fill the beaker for the first one. 17. Then repeat the steps 12-16 two more times for the 2 minute trial. 18. After doing 2 minute trial, then Measure about 20 ml of water with the graduated cylinder for 3 minute trial. 19. measure the temperature of the water and record it under 3 minute trial 20. Place the liquid fuel under the beaker and carefully light the candle 21. Using the stopwatch, start the time for 3 minutes and blow out the candle after 3 minutes has passed 22. After you have blown out the candle, record the new temperature of the water under the 3 minutes trial. 23. Wash the beaker completely in the same type of water that was used to fill the beaker for the first one. 24. Then repeat the steps 18-23 two more times for the 3 minute trial. 25. After doing 3 minute trial, then Measure about 20 ml of water with the graduated cylinder for 4 minute trial. 26. measure the temperature of the water and record it under 4 minute trial 27. Place the liquid fuel under the beaker and carefully light the candle 28. Using the stopwatch, start the time for 4 minutes and blow out the candle after 4 minutes has passed 29. After you have blown out the candle, record the new temperature of the water under the 4 minutes trial. 30. Wash the beaker completely in the same type of water that was used to fill the beaker for the first one. 31. Then repeat the steps 25-30 two more times for the 4 minute trial. 32. Once all data has been collected, then analyze your date and write the conclusion. Data Uncertainty Equipment Uncertainty Beaker à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 ml Thermometer à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C Stopwatch à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 seconds Graduated Cylinder à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 ml Control-1 minute Trial 1 Amount of water Initial Temp Final Temp Change in Temp Trial 2 Amount of water Initial Temp Final Temp Change in Temp Trial 3 Amount of water Initial Temp Final Temp Change in Temp 2 min Trial Trial 1 Amount of water Initial Temp Final Temp Change in Temp Trial 2 Amount of water Initial Temp Final Temp Change in Temp Trial 3 Amount of water Initial Temp Final Temp Change in Temp 3 min Trial Trial 1 Amount of water Initial Temp Final Temp Change in Temp Trial 2 Amount of water Initial Temp Final Temp Change in Temp Trial 3 Amount of water Initial Temp Final Temp Change in Temp 4 min Trial Trial 1 Amount of water Initial Temp Final Temp Change in Temp Trial 2 Amount of water Initial Temp Final Temp Change in Temp Trial 3 Amount of water Initial Temp Final Temp Change in Temp Q = mc?T Q Mass Change in Temp C 4.18 J/G à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C Processed Data Uncertainty Equipment Uncertainty Beaker à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 ml Thermometer à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C Stopwatch à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 seconds Graduated Cylinder à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 ml Control-1 minute Trial 1 Amount of water Initial Temp Final Temp Change in Temp Trial 2 Amount of water Initial Temp Final Temp Change in Temp 20 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 ml 22.45 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C 31.30 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C 9 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.02 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C Trial 3 Amount of water Initial Temp Final Temp Change in Temp 20 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 ml 22.40 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C 30.65 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C 8 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.02 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C 2 min Trial Trial 1 Amount of water Initial Temp Final Temp Change in Temp 20 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 ml 22.95 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C 40.40 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C 18 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.02 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C Trial 2 Amount of water Initial Temp Final Temp Change in Temp Trial 3 Amount of water Initial Temp Final Temp Change in Temp 3 min Trial Trial 1 Amount of water Initial Temp Final Temp Change in Temp 20 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 ml 22.60 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C 50.75 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C 28 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.02 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C Trial 2 Amount of water Initial Temp Final Temp Change in Temp Trial 3 Amount of water Initial Temp Final Temp Change in Temp 20 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 ml 22.80 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C 50.20 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C 28 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.02 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C 4 min Trial Trial 1 Amount of water Initial Temp Final Temp Change in Temp 20 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 ml 22 .60à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C 56.15 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C 34 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.02 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C Trial 2 Amount of water Initial Temp Final Temp Change in Temp Trial 3 Amount of water Initial Temp Final Temp Change in Temp Q = mc?T Q Mass Change in Temp C 4.18 J/G à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C Uncertainties of data ml of water 0.01ml /20.00 ml à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.05% Beaker 0.01ml /20.00 ml à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.05% Time 0.01 min /1 min à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 1.0% Independent Variables Independent Variable 1 (1 minute) 0.01 min /1 min à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 1.0% Independent Variable 2 (2 minutes) 0.01 min /2 min à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.5% Independent Variable 3 (3 minutes) 0.01 min /3 min à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.33% Independent Variable 4 (4 minutes) 0.01 min /4 min à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.25% Initial Temperatures Control-1 minute T1. Temperature (22.50) 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C /22.50 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.04% T2. Temperature (22.45) 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C /22.45 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.04% T3. Temperature (22.40) 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C /22.40 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.04% 2 Minute Trial T1. Temperature (22.95) 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C /22.95 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.04% T2. Temperature (22.40) 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C /22.40 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.04% T3. Temperature (22.40) 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C /22.40 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.04% 3 Minute Trial T1. Temperature (22.60) 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C /22.60 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.04% T2. Temperature (22.75) 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C /22.75 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.04% T3. Temperature (22.80) 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C /22.80 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.04% 4 Minute Trial T1. Temperature (22.60) 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C /22.60 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.04% T2. Temperature (22.75) 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C /22.75 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.04% T3. Temperature (22.25) 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C /22.15 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.04% Final Temperature Control T1. Temperature (30.00) 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C /30.00 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.03% T2. Temperature (31.30) 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C /31.30 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.03% T3. Temperature (30.65) 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C /30.65 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.03% 2 Minute Trial T1. Temperature (40.40) 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C /40.40 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.02% T2. Temperature (41.70) 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C /41.70 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.02% T3. Temperature (40.55) 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C /40.55 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.02% 3 Minute Trial T1. Temperature (50.75) 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C /50.75 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.02% T2. Temperature (50.35) 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C /50.35 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.02% T3. Temperature (50.20) 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C /50.20 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.02% 4 Minute Trial T1. Temperature (56.15) 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C /56.15 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.04% T2. Temperature (55.90) 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C /56.15 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.04% T3. Temperature (56.20) 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C /56.15 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 % 0.04% Q = mc?T of control Q = 4.18 J/G à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ (0.048g) à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ change in Temperature Q= 20.00 ml (1L/1000ml)(1mol/22.4)(18.08/1 mol) = 0.0161 g Conclusion In this experiment it was proven that when certain about of water are left for a certain time over a flame it would change in temperature. The longer the water is over the flame, the temperature increased which proved the hypothesis to be correct. This experiment proved that the more time water is heated, the higher the temperature would be. If this experiment was to be conducted the next time, there would be a lot of changes. First the control would be in the temperature of water without any heated added to it. Then the time it was to be heated would be longer than one minute different in each different trial. More trials of the same time would be conducted to make sure that the experiment would be performed correctly.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Zombies Rogerian Argument

Zombies have taken over. They dominate television shows, movies and anything else related to pop culture and have become increasingly more popular as the years progress. Whether it’s a mob of zombies sucking the brains out of a helpless victim on the big screen or zombies terrorizing families on television shows, it is hard to ignore the gory entourage. Fans of zombie lore generally fall into two categories: those who are attracted to the popularity of zombies and see them as purely amusement and those who not only are amused by zombies, but can also see the possibility of fiction becoming reality. The possibility of a zombie apocalypse is very real and terrifying; and most of the population simply wouldn’t survive. No one is safe. Now is the time to prepare and learn about the potential threat and to ensure–above all else– survival. For hundreds of years zombies have conjured images of the reanimated dead, mindlessly searching for the next meal of human brains. While this may be true in Hollywood, zombies actually started out as mindless servants who worked on farms in Haiti, where voodoo was the main religion in practice. Voodoo priests of priestesses are believed to use medicinal concoctions which can bring the dead back to life as zombie slaves, who were then worked out in the fields. This became such a problem in Haiti that family members would guard the graves of loved ones until they were certain the body had begun to decompose, as voodoo only works on the freshly dead. (Real Zombies, 1) At any rate, many people simply do not believe in the possibility of a single zombie, let alone a zombie apocalypse. The notion of a human being brought back to life as a blood thirsty creature does sound far-fetched, and as of yet there have been no documented cases of the typical Hollywood zombie. It is human nature to resist ideas that are so outlandish and terrifying, especially given the seeming lack of proof surrounding a zombie invasion. Normally, such things can be chalked up to a simple fad taking hold of the nation’s youth as a result of cinematic glamour and the growth of social networking. Normally, most people would agree that the zombie craze will be short lived and would certainly not amount to the apocalyptic infatuation that seems to have taken hold of the populace. We always seek the rational, the explainable, the safe. Unfortunately, like history has proven time and again, inexplicable events can often change our views of what is rational and real. There is a very real and poignant possibility that we could be faced with a zombie infestation, and it could occur at any time. The conditions are right. From a scientific standpoint, the ingredients for a devastating zombie outbreak are primed and ready, with some needing only a slight evolution of a bacteria, virus, or even parasites. Toxoplasmosa Gondii is a rather terrifying parasite that can only breed in the intestines of a cat. While that may not seem unusual, the parasite actually lives and grows on rats. In order to be ingested by felines, the parasites take over the rats brain and make it scurry towards where cats habitate. What makes this even more horrifying is that over half of the human population are already infected with Toxoplasmosa and it has been scientifically proven to alter the personality of those who are infected. It would only take a few changes in the parasites to occur either naturally or in a lab before we become slaves to a parasite. Neurotoxins are second on the list. Neurotoxins are poisons(naturally occurring or man-made) that can be used to slow bodily functions to the point of being legally declared dead. They can also be used to bring those people back in a trance-like state with no memory; essentially leaving them as a shuffling, mindless husk. One case in Haiti tells of a Clairvius Narcisse, who was legally declared dead by two doctors but was found 18 years later wandering around a village. A voodoo preist had been using neurotoxins to make Clairvius into a zombie to work his fields. Next is the virus that causes Mad Cow disease. The virus turns cows into enraged attack animals, and when ingested by humans it manifests as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. This disease causes hallucinations, lack of coordination, muscle twitching and rapidly-developing dementia that an turn intensely violent. Neurogenesis is also capable of creating zombies. Neurogenesis is the act regrowing brain cells, or entire brains. This sounds great, but a lab who expiraments in neurogenesis has proven that is can cause the brain to die from the inside out; destroying parts of the rain that make us human first. It destroys the cerebral cortex and leaves only basic motor functions and instincts behind. Lastly are nanobots, which are microscopic, self-replicating robots that scientists have used to attach to viruses. These nanobots can survive even after the host dies. Now there are studies that aim to use nanobots to replace damages neural connections in the human brain. They can rewire your thoughts and survive after host death–what could possibly go wrong? (Wong,5) In lieu of the overwhelming scientific evidence that supports the possibility of a zombie apocalypse, it is imperative that the human race be prepared for such an event. It is essential that we strive to get in shape and remain healthy not only for longevity, but also for survival. The reality of the situation is that, quite simply, one cannot possibly deny that science is constantly evolving. There are weapons of warfare, both biological and chemical, that can cause mass dementia, insanity, and eventually death. Wiki,1) Is it so hard to imagine a weapon being forged that could enslave humans by destroying their minds and making them a mindless horde? Suddenly, the concept of a zombie apocalypse doesn’t seem so far fetched. While the vast majority may, thanks to the exaggerations made by Hollywood, not believe in the possibility of a zombie take-over, it is important to remember that anything is possible with the amount of technology that continues to constantly evolve. By keeping in shape, memorizing escape routes at home and being constantly aware, human-kind may stand a chance against a plague of undead. The presence of parasites able to take over brain functions, neurotoxins able to control the body, miniscule robots poised to take over the brain and viruses able to reduce humans into demented, tortured shadows of a creature, it is essential that preparations are taken in the event one of those things should evolve. The reasoning is simple and appeals to human nature: it is better to be safe, than sorry.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Historic site in the New York City Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Historic site in the New York City - Essay Example His ability to make meticulous plans, even in the face of unexpected obstacles, has also helped him gain victory. Ulysses S Grant remerged when he volunteered his services for the Civil War that broke out in 1861. One of Grant’s major achievements was gaining control of the Union. He also won some major victories along the Mississippi river. This prevented trade along the Mississippi which was part of anaconda plan. He appeared as one of the greatest leaders of American History during the Civil War. Grant was considered as a very compassionate and peaceful man who believed that political equality should be given to former slaves, when he became President of the United States. He also wanted the Indians to be treated with respect and dignity. Grant wanted justice and equality for African Americans under the law which allowed Hiram Revel of Mississippi to become the first black to be elected to the US Senate. Grant also chose Ely Parker as Commissioner of Indian Affairs. One of the most important policies during his presidency was a treaty signed in 1971, which is known as the Treaty of Washington. This policy had helped resolve several disputes among Unites States, Great Britain and Canada. He wanted this treaty to show its value in resolving problems without engaging in war but through negotiation. As Americans, we should honor Ulysses S Grant, a Civil War general, who saved the nation from dissolution. He also deserves to be respected as a president who worked to bring peace and order to not only the country but also the world at

Thursday, September 26, 2019

American political and social life that Tocqueville discusses Essay

American political and social life that Tocqueville discusses - Essay Example This paper analyses Toqeville's account on religion in America in nineteenth century and its influences on democracy. There is hardly any human action, however, it may be particular, which does not originate in some general idea, men have conceived of the Deity, of his relation to mankind, of the nature of their own souls, and of their duties to their fellow creatures. Men are therefore immeasurably interested in acquiring fixed ideas of God (Toqueveille, p.22) Toqeville has pointed out that majority of the ideas developed in this world are attributed to God or Deity. It is a fact that even atheists are developing their arguments based on the teachings of the religion. In fact the influence of God and religion is forcing the people to think in terms of good and evil. In the absence of religious teachings, nobody would have cared about the seriousness of committing mistakes. Religion is the only entity which talk about a life after death and whereas all the other institutions and phil osophies are talking about the present life while keeping a blind eye towards what is going to happen after one’s death. â€Å"One of the principal advantage of religion is to furnish fundamental questions a solution which is at once clear, precise, intelligible to the mass of mankind and lasting† (Toqueveille, p.23). ... Religion restraining on every side of the free movement of the human mind. It imposes a salutary restraint on the intellect and it must be admitted that if it do not save men in another world, it is at least very conductive to their happiness and greatness in this (Toqueveille, p.24) As stated earlier, the hope for a life after death prevents people from controlling their thoughts of committing any evil act in this world. It is a fact that human mind is just like a free bird which travels randomly from one place to another without any preferences of priorities. However, the thoughts about the future world force the people to put a strong control over his thoughts and activities. Because of the constraints imposed by the religions, people cannot think freely as stated by Toqueveille. â€Å"It is doubtful whether man can ever support at the same time complete religious independence and entire political freedom. If faith be wanting in him, he must be subject; and if he be free, he must believe† (Toqueveille, p.24). Political thoughts and religious teachings may not travel always in parallel directions. There are some political thoughts which support majority religious teachings fully whereas there are many other political thoughts which reject all the claims of religions. For example, in Islamic countries like, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, etc religion dominates over politics. In fact politics in these countries cannot be separated from religion and religious teachings. In other words, religion is actually ruling in these countries. On the other hand, in communist countries like China, freedom to believe in some kind of religion is prohibited. In such countries, religion has few roles in social and political lives of the public. On the other hand, in

Morgan stanly Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Morgan stanly - Essay Example The headquarters is located in New York City, Manhattan, and the representatives of the company, as well as subsidiaries can be found in 42 countries. Total assets that company manages or supervises, reported by the company, total $ 304 billion. The company was established in September 1935 by Henry Morgan, Harold Stanley, and others. The establishment was stipulated by the Glass-Steagall Act, that required the proper division of the banking and investment activity of the financial organizations. As Chiou and Larson (2005) emphasize the first operational year appeared rather successful, as the company managed to gain the 24% of the market share (which involved up to $ 1 billion) in managing the public offerings (up to 70% of the company’s assets) as well as private placements. In the end of 1930s the company participated in the industrial development of the USA by offering $ 100 million debentures for the US Steel Corporation, as well as obtaining the rail syndicate in 1939. T he 1950s period is considered as quite notorious for the financial structure of the company, since the company was involved into the banking activity by co-managing the World Bank’s bonds. ... in the same year, and entered the real estate business by this merger. In 1990s, the company added another financial management approach, and started serving like the underwriter for most technical and scientific initiatives. Therefore, Morgan Stanley served as the key underwriter for Netscape, Cisco, Compaq, Dolby Laboratories, Brocade, Google and others. The core products that the company offers for the financial services market involve Global Wealth Management, Investment Management and Consulting, as well as working out proper and relevant management strategies for the institutional financial securities. Industry Analysis Financial services that are offered by the Morgan Stanley and competitors are generally intended to regulate the financial flow, stabilize the economic and financial global situation, as well as secure the managed financial reserves, debts, and investments from financial catastrophes and crises. Therefore, the financial services industry involves such spheres as banking, financial insurance, managing security, investment fund controlling, retail, payment systems development. Considering the circumstances of the 2008 financial crisis, stabilization, and reformation of the global economic system is regarded as the priority for most experienced economists. They make emphasis on developing effective financial management tools, that financial companies possess. (Horrigan, 2004) In accordance with the estimates, offered by Halah Touryalai (2013), Forbes observer, the Morgan Stanley controlled up to 40% assets of the retail clients in 2012, and the forecasts for the years 2013-2014 expect that this share will suffer 16% decrease. RBC Wealth Management’s (regional assets broker) market share, in its turn is

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

The Dark Face of the Earth Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Dark Face of the Earth - Essay Example The authoress makes an attention-grabbing role reversal in the play since the female is in the place of power and Augustus is suberserviant to her instead of the other way round. The play begins with Amalia giving birth to a black child as a result of her affair with a slave. However, the complexity was her situation compels her into giving her baby to another plantation. As years pass by, she changes in a tyrant because of constant dissatisfaction and heartbreaks. Then Augustus arrives on the plantation, bound in chains and seduced by his owner. The play is filled with clever turnings which fills it with suspense until the tragic ending. Each word of Aristotle’s definition of tragedy qualifies for an essay. According to him, every tragedy comprises of six components, namely: plot, characters, diction, thought, melody/songs and spectacle. For him, a good tragedy is in which the actions and motives of the protagonist drive his actions to the extent that it stimulates dread and compassion among the audience. This play’s theatrical success seems to be indicative of the fact that characters managed to successfully arise sympathy and apprehension in the audience. Tragedy is the portrayal men in action not simply men. Character exposes the motives, preferences and reactions, which according to Aristotle are more essential than thought (Carlisle). In the darker face of the world, the hero, Augustus is seen as: the savior of the slaves, a smart and educated fellow who has seen the outside world. Although, Amalia was determined not to give him up but she had to as he was biracial, which ingrained a sense of injustice in him. Since he was raised by an English captain on a ship so Augustus unlike the other African slaves does not believe in religion or heritage and disdains their superstitious thinking. Due to his strong headed attitude, leadership attributes and desire for freedom seems an ideal to lead the freedom movement. This paints a realistic and true to life picture of the pre-civil war condition of slaves in America and makes the character closer to reality. Eventually as he grabs and agonizes with Amalia, he accomplishes his goal of murdering the plantation owner and thus liberating the black slaves from the tyrannical rule. This is also highlights the face that the circumstances that led to the ending of Augustus were greatly impacted by external factors like ethnocentric issues (Harris). Phebe, born on the plantation is a resilient yet loving, loyal and intellectual woman who adored Augustus even though their attitudes are categorically opposite. However, Augustus like majority of black men who after receiving the admiration of their own kind develop a preference for white women is also inclined towards Amalia. â€Å"A man who is not eminently good and just yet whose misfortune is not brought by vice or depravity but by some error of frailty†, this line by Aristotle defines what constitutes a tragic hero in his sight (Aristotle). The affair between Amalia and Hector was not under the protagonist’s control. We cannot blame him for developing a prejudiced and unjust attitude in consideration of his miserable parentless childhood. Similarly, unaware of his mother’s identity and getting seduced by Amalia was natural. However indulging in the private pursuit of pleasure and committing murders direct out

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Developing yourself and others Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Developing yourself and others - Coursework Example I like action oriented careers, in which I will be in the goal settings and implementations. My colleague has a converging learning style. He likes experimenting first on theories and principles before he can apply on real office work. He questions everything he is given to work with and rarely does his work following gut feelings. He is interested in developmental work with innovations such as technology and science. For him, everything has to be tackled with an appropriate solution, and what worked for a single problem may not work for another one unless, it is first tried and tested. He is the kind of person who can come up with manuals to be used in the work, and everybody should use the manual when solving the particular problem. The developmental needs assessment for me and my colleague was done using a SWOT analysis. SWOT analysis is an analysis that focuses on strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (Burrow, 2012 p. 148). The first strength I harbor is that I am a hands-on person, and like doing things the best way in which I think will work out. The market is always dynamic changing from day to day and thus what worked yesterday may not function today. The opportunity I have is that I am a fast learner, and I am also very flexible to change and can thus adapt to any organizational setting. My major weakness lies in the use of standards and formulas. I cannot do a job that requires the use of standards, as I prefer taking shortcuts. The primary threat I harbor is the flooding of the market with people who are whole rounded. The major need is to learn how to use standards and patience in implementation of strategies. My colleague’s strength lies in the ability to use standards and use only those formulas that are tested and tried. His major opportunity lies in the fact that he is still young and in school, and, for this reason, will climb the corporate ladder fast because of the amount of certificates he has. His major weakness is

Monday, September 23, 2019

Implementation of Balanced Scorecard by Citibank Essay

Implementation of Balanced Scorecard by Citibank - Essay Example Economics-based agency models underscore the significance of performance measure in align the goals of the agent with those of the principal. Economic-based models harness the use of traditional financial measures to evaluate whether the company’s strategy contributes to the bottom-line progress of the company. These models therefore attempt to examine the outcome from the strategy, and to translate the success of the strategy in financial terms. Citibank should select performance measures while reflecting on their real purposes and overall effect. In addition, they should indicate that the selection of the performance metric in incentive contracts should be a feature of the incremental information content for each measure with regard to an employee’s action choices. Citibank should exploit the full potential of the balancing score card in tracking the short-term financial results while at the same time tracking its progress in developing capacities and acquisition of the intangible assets that promote the growth of future financial performance. At this stage, Citibank should consider the three possible stages in which to consider the financial measures to evaluate, namely rapid growth phase, sustain phase and harvest phase. In the growth stage, I expect Citibank to evaluate increase in customer base, revenue surge or increase in sales. At the sustain stage, the bank should come up with measures that can effectively evaluate its overall performance, in which case it should consider financial measures like return on capital employed or return on investments (ROI). In the harvest phase, Citibank should probably come up with effective cash flow analysis to appraise its success in harvesting profits from established services or products(Christensen & Demski 2003). In brief, economics-based agency models concentrate on the significance placed on encouraging congruence between the agent and the principal’s goal (Pfeffer 1998). Psychology Psychology-based models study how the type of information applied in assessing performa nce is influenced by decision strategies and human-information processing capacities. Usually, they tend to deviate from the balanced choice models in economics and inquire much into how limitations of human-information processing and decision-making strategy affect the use of performance measures. Citibank should examine how its employee’s information processing abilities and their strategies for making decision affect the types of information

Sunday, September 22, 2019

The Morals of Frankenstein Essay Example for Free

The Morals of Frankenstein Essay In this essay, I intend to compare the two stories and decide which one I prefer between, the darkness out there and The Lumber-room. The lumber-room is set in the Edwardian times, the main character is called Nicolas, and he is a young child, who is growing up and realising that every thing is not as it seemed, he sets out to seek attention by being mischievous and ends up proving his aunt wrong and using her own lies against her. Nicolas puts a frog in his own bread and milk, probably to shock his aunty, but when his aunt insists constantly that there was no frog in his bread and milk to keep things calm and normal he knew there was being guilty of this act and trys to prove the aunty is wrong without admitting to the fact. Then he makes a fool and out wits his aunt in to thinking that he was trying to get in to the gooseberry garden, where he had been banned from visiting, because of the mornings earlier events. She sat in front of the door watching the entrance to the gooseberry garden trying to stop him from getting in, so he changed his tactics and went inside to look in the lumber-room. He found all sorts of treasures and books he also highlighted how he sees adults, as boring and to serious. It was probably the first time for twenty years that any one had smiled in that lumber room. Then he heard his aunt shouting for him, while she was searching for him, he had tidied up and then went to see what she wanted, she told him she had fallen in to the rainwater tank and told him he had to go and get a ladder, so she could get out. He knew it was his aunt, but this was his chance to get revenge for the lies she told earlier. He said that he did not believe she was his aunt, and that she was the evil one sent to tempt him in to the gooseberry garden, where he was not allowed, he knew not to push it to far and walked away so as not to get his aunt to annoyed so she wouldnt punish him further. He also showed her he is not as stupid as he may seem by telling her about the strawberry jam, but his aunt didnt know it was there. In short, this story is about a young boy whos trying to prove hes not too easily frightened hes imaginative and realises that adults are not with out there own faults, no ones perfect and its not only children who get mixed up. The darkness out there is a turning point story. In this story, there is a young girl about 13 15 years old. She starts of in the story looking at the world in a nice light and talking about fantasy creatures, also how nice her life will be when she grows up, gets a job has kids and a beautiful loving husband the usual 13 15 year old female dream. Then she meets Kerry Stevenson and decides from things other people have said that he is not a very nice person. Then she meets Mrs Rutter and decides she is a innocent sweet old lady, she is in fact not very nice and leaves a German pilot in the woods for two days to die a slow pain full death. The story follows a stereotypical approach to looking at old and young people, these stereotypes soon change as you find more about the characters, as the story goes on Mrs Rutter describes how she left a pilot to die as an act of revenge and Kerry turns out to be quite humane and kind lad. At the end of this story, she is walking home and decides that everything is not as it seems and that not every one is stereotypical. I prefer the lumber-room because of its happier out look on life a carefree childish approach to life, also the way Nicolas out smarts his aunt is amusing and made me laugh. The book formed strong pictures in my mind and was enjoyable and easy to read I believe that the darkness out there uses to much symbolism to convey its point, also the lumber-room is much easier to read less description, more action and lets get down to the facts. In the lumber room the only really long descriptive part, is the part where the hunts man is hunting the stag and is himself being followed by some wolves he doesnt take this at face value and makes the story behind the tapestry much more complex than it actually is. I feel he can identify with the hunts man, as he has also hunted his aunty in his own childish way. I think this is an excellent piece of descriptive writing and describes a young Childs imagination very well, he looks at the tapestry and sees past the plane facts and even comes back to comment on it later saying that he thinks the wolves will eat the stag while the hunts man runs from the wolves. In addition the plot is nowhere as near sinister or riveting, as the darkness out there. This story uses lots of light, dark contrasts to show that things are either a bad or good memories, when she walks down by packers end theres a shadow that falls on her and it gets colder, using metaphors to describe her feelings as a physical feeling rather than a emotional one. The darkness and light story left me feeling sad miserable proving grown ups to be fallible and weak, where as the lumbar room story made me feel alive, excited and amused wanting to read more of his antics.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Review of Karl Marx’s Capital (1867)

Review of Karl Marx’s Capital (1867) Review of Karl Marx’s article Capital Capital, published in 1867 instantly made its mark as one of Karl Marx’s most ‘detailed critique of economic life.’ (Rivikin Ryan, 665, 2004) In his article, Marx not only highlights that we ‘fetishize the objects that appeal most immediately to our senses’, (Rivikin Ryan, 665, 2004) but he also argues that we ignore the real exploitation of the workers who provide these commodities on the marketplace. In his article, Marx illuminates how the capitalist economic system structures human society. One of the ideas that he puts forward is how the relationship between ‘satisfying human wants’ for the value of a commodity contrasts with the invisible exploitation of labour. He states that man easily ‘changes the forms’ of the commodities in order to be ‘useful to him’, therefore demonstrating how the bourgeoisie owns the means of production thus highlighting how they are only interested in producing the maximum surplus value to suit their needs. Furthermore, Marx describes the capitalist as an ‘enigmatical character’ which further suggests they have the power and control over the world’s natural, economic and human resources to take advantage of the product of labour, as soon as it takes the ‘form of commodities’ which is of high value. Another idea put forward by Marx is the contrast between the social relations and the technical relations of production. Firstly, Marx states ‘their own labour is presented to them as a social relation’ which is of importance as it means it is the people who are associated to a relatively stable economic structure. However, Marx goes on to say the producer’s labour only exists ‘between the product of their labour’ which implies it is now the people that relate to objects; thus highlighting how the result of production determines your social class. In addition, he states that the qualities of the products of labour are ‘perceptible and imperceptible’ which links back to the idea of how we are not only ignorant to the producers of commodities but this opens up to the alienation of social relations. Following on from this idea, the social relations become less apparent as Marx argues that the value relation between the products of labour has ‘no connection with their physical properties’. Marx’s idea of commodity fetishism is highlighted here as it transforms how the production of commodities and money are exchanged in the market trade through secretly hiding the fact that someone was exploited to produce that value of commodity. Furthermore, Marx continues to illuminate the human alienation of the capitalist structure as he states man is drawn into this concept by ‘the fantastic form of a relation between things’. Marx believes that through reification, these commodities now seen as objects obscure the economic exploitation of the labourer’s (subjects) wages and the new value of product created by the worker themselves. In his article, Marx cleverly underpins how we are ignorant to the inefficient and exploitive system with the analogy of the ‘act of seeing’. He argues that from the ‘external object to the eye’, we see an ‘actual passage of light from one thing to another’, which implies the exploitation of labourer’s is not invisible; but we just choose not to see it as we live in a controlled society. In his article Marx demonstrates a contrast between the social and technical relation production and from this light analogy we can argue that there is a need for social dependency that capitalism feeds off; in order for economic power to overrule all political and social activities. Furthermore, the value of capital would deteriorate if labour is removed from the workplace, thus highlighting how the bourgeoisie are in effect dependent upon the proletariat labour-power. In his text, Marx also puts forward a philosophical concept which brings about the theory of alienation of the capitalist system. The analogy of the ‘mist-enveloped regions of the religious world’ is a highly effective idea as it illuminates that Christianity and the concept of God estranges the natural characteristics of our human desires. Marx essentially made use of Charles de Brosses concept of fetishism through his The Cult of Fetish Gods (1760) which suggests a materialist theory of the origin of religion which developed the idea of commodity fetishism. Marx gives reference to ‘men’s hands’ which arguably suggests that the whole system is corrupt as commodities are seen as more valuable than the labourer who produced it. Marx concludes with ‘This I call Fetishism’ which emphasises and summarises how unfair and corrupt the capitalist system works. Word count: 748 Marxism applied to Raymond Carver’s poem Shiftless There are many subtle concepts of Marxism found in Raymond Carver’s poem Shiftless, published in 1985. The first few lines highlight the idea that everything is masked in the capitalist system of control. He states the people who were higher up the social ladder ‘were comfortable’ (1) who were fortunate to live in ‘painted houses with flush toilets’ (2) and ‘drove cars whose year and make were recognizable’ (3). From the description given, the materialist goods illuminate the idea of conspicuous consumption; they purchase these costly good and publicly display them to impress people with their wealth of economic power. Furthermore, this idea of ‘painted houses’ could be symbolic for the fact that commodity fetishism is active as it shows these material commodities are of greater value than those who produced it. Also, ‘painted’ links in with Marx’s idea of how we are ignorant to acknowledge the exploitation of labourer’s. These material goods also link in with Marx’s idea of ‘satisfying human wants’ from his chapter on Capital. The consumer aspires to have the best of the best commodities in order to gain social, economic and cultural prestige. Marx argues in his chapter on The German Ideology that ‘those who lack the means of production are subject to it.’ (Rivkin Ryan, 2004, 656) This means depending on where you stand on the ladder of the capitalist system, you are put in a social class depending on the amount of means of production. Carver continues with ‘The ones worse off were sorry’ which links in with Mar x’s theory of how the working class are exploited and it further attacks the unfair capitalist market system. Carver gives reference to ‘strange cars’ and ‘dusty yards’ (5) to juxtapose the material goods in the first three lines. The poet cleverly shows the distinction between the value of commodities and the social classes in just one line. This links in with Marx’s alienation theory of the effect of the capitalist production on labourers. These material objects are there in the poem so that the reader can identify the clear contrast in social class; however those who are subject to it are under the false consciousness as it is the way a capitalist society works. According to Bertell Ollman, he argues that all classes are under some form of alienation, but it is ‘the proletariats affliction is the most severe.’ (Ollman, 2014) Following this idea, we can see the contrast of material commodities given in Shiftless, which highlights the exploitation of labour. The reference to ‘dusty yards’ suggests the capitalist system dominates the history of class struggle and the poem reflects the poverty that the proletariat undergo. In his poem, Carver cleverly represents his own opinion of life to mock the capitalist system of control as he stats ‘My goal was always / to be shiftless. I saw the merit in that.’(8 9) The poet Jim McGarrah states that ‘This constant state of flux and the battle for economic stability began to take a toll on Carver’s personal life’ (McGarrah, 2009) which highlights the domineering effect of the capitalist control. The idea of ‘doing nothing’ (11) links in with Marx’s view of ideology and how ideology is part of everyday reality. Terry Eagleton, a literary theorist, argues that ‘people invest in their own unhappiness’ (Eagleton, 1991, 13) which suggests why Carver experiences simple activities in the poem. The word ‘Spitting.’ (15) is positioned on its own to perhaps emphasise how this shiftless behaviour is seen to be more appealing than being a subject to an exploitive system where commodities are of m ore value. Marx uses a philosophical analogy of how the natural characteristics of human behaviour is estranged due to them being subjective to an ideological apparatus of a higher system; God in the religious world. Carver challenges this interpellation procedure by stating in the final two lines ‘â€Å"Don’t I know you?† / Not, â€Å"What are you going to be when you grow up?†Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ Carver highlights how controlled society is as everyone believes they have to be ‘something’ or ‘someone’ in order to attain social prestige. The pressure of a good reputation and a social status is what forces us into the idea of having to have the best commodities that we either buy or own in order to communicate a sense of social prestige. This poem highlights Marxist theoretical concepts in order to highlight how exploitive, alienating and inefficient the capitalist system is. Word count: 740

Friday, September 20, 2019

The Current Trends In Hotel Industry Tourism Essay

The Current Trends In Hotel Industry Tourism Essay In  economics, a  service  is an  intangible  commodity. More specifically, services are an intangible equivalent of  economic goods. It sets a onetime benefit; delivered from the accountable service provider, mostly in close coactions with his internal and external service suppliers, effectuated by distinct functions of technical systems and by distinct activities of individuals, respectively, commissioned according to the needs of his service consumers by the service customer from the accountable service provider, rendered individually to an authorized service consumer at his/her dedicated trigger, and, finally, consumed and utilized by the triggering service consumer for executing his/her upcoming business activity or private activity. The nature of the service, strategies for improvement, and understand the customers perception of having that is very popular among researchers over the past two decades (for examples, leonard and sasser, 1982; lockwood, 1996; johns and lee-ross, 1998). Increases the other hand, the growing economic importance of the service sector in many countries has been in quality initiatives including guided centrally based European Foundation for Quality Management. Many hospitality, tourism organization have taken this challenge focuses on customer orientation employee performance in the interface, the recognition of the centrality of meeting service By this definition, customer / employee interviews have the potential for conflicts. In a service context that feeling cannot be met exactly, but it provides a cautionary note for Service Manager, because the customers perception of product quality connection often depends on the interaction between customers and employees. The History of Hotels: From Economic To Extravagant The hotel has a very long history, but not as we know it today, back in the 6th Century began to develop BC, when the first inn in and around the city of London. The first match for travelers, offering them a simple roof to stay. This condition of the hotel was long before the industrial revolution in England, the new ideas and developments made à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ ¹Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ ¹in the field to keep the inn. The invention of the steam engine to travel even more important. Who had more and more people are traveling not only for business but also for the sake of recreation. This will lead to the actual development of the hotel industry, as we know it today. Hotel today not only provide the basic needs of customers, such as food and shelter much more personalized services such as hotels, etc. are now a home away from home. Evidence of the hotels and restaurants has as far back as biblical times, when Mary and Joseph arrived in Bethlehem collected during the census. As shown in the Bible, Mary and Joseph were refused accommodations because it. No room in the inn Since the dawn of time, people have traveled for trade, religion, family, health, immigration, education and recreation. Such as Texas Tech University, cited the word hospitality from the Latin root meaning host or hospice. The University has also noted that the first hotels were only private homes open to the public. Most unfortunately had a bad reputation. Under the influence of the Roman Empire and breakfast and hotels catering to the delight of travelers began in an effort to encourage visitors. The first hostel in America was recorded in 1607 and paves the way for many other firsts in the hospitality industry. The first hotel of the public (City Hotel), owned in New York opened in 1792. The first modern (Tremont) opened in Boston in 1809 and the hotel first opened (Buffalo Statler) in 1908. Current trends in hotel industry Hospitality Industry continued to change, which has made it more practical and functional in the world! The types of services and facilities that are offered by the great industry and has emerged from the past decade. All this is possible because of the widespread use of technology, environment friendly services, pricing, market division, regional preferences, etc. The relation of technology and hospitality industry will grow stronger in the years to come. The use of technology is present in all departments of the hotel, the upgrade reflects the motion of the hotel services. Keeping the entire latest trend in the memory of the hospitality industry, KONEKT V4 application that you would definitely want to explore. This is the application that will help you reach your customers in one click. The main attraction is the dashboard application. Is an unconventional marketing tracker is sensitive facts giving minute to give you the latest campaigns and activities conducted by you. The time, name and number of customers who liked your Facebook page, make your table reservation, you asked for any questions or comments about your application also can track comments on the same page! CRM systems help you to increase the advertising campaigns for events, and you can send informative mailers to customers, after core build your brand. It is a system that works on all digital platforms and databases also you can get more for clients achieve your Hotel, Restaurant and Resorts. It is the only system to integrate the old with the new database, so that you can get, its data in a single view. It works perfectly with the iPhone and iPad systems. It is built in a way that let you miss any opinion or report, even when youre away! Travelers increasingly will turn to their mobile devices not only research accommodation and travel options, but to book and communicate directly with the hotel options. Booking mobile channel has been multiplied by four between 2008 and 2010 according to Forrester Research. In addition, Google provides the mobile PC that exceed the device the most common internet access by 2013! To smart phones and tablets travel at a rapid pace, it is imperative for hoteliers to use their website for mobile capture potential mobile transactions. Revenue management has changed since the days it was first introduced by the airline industry in 1970 to be a complex science today. Managers always lowering prices to stimulate sales when demand is low and prices have risen during periods of peak demand. Hotels are now able to update prices for all future arrival dates to meet the market demands every day, through the application of advanced market information. TravelClick has reported passenger demand and visualize group bookings a year in advance. In addition, the Smith Travel Research reports that will soon provide information by looking at future bookings, rather than historical figures that. (By Robert A. Rauch, CHA) Gueridon a form of service in restaurants food service to their customers is provided. This type of service includes the preparation of food (mainly salads, main dishes such as beef stroganoff, or desserts) in direct view of the customer, with a round table. A table usually consists of a trolley equipped for cooking, preparing and serving food. There is a gas stove, cutting board, cutlery drawer, cold room (depending on the type of carriage) region and for general working capital. Dishes such as these are generally Crepes Suzette, Caesar Salad, Cherries Jubilee, and banana flambà © steak tartar Read more: FUTURE Trends of hotel industry The hotel industry is in the midst of a transformation that affects virtually all aspects of the industry and its stakeholders. Essences the transformation of the hotel industry is changing its approach to concentrate more focused on the customer and brand insentive. Product and support services are developed around the perceived needs and desires of the customer for customer satisfaction. In the future, the focus will be customer focused to a level that transcends medical examinations. It will focus on the emotional and psychological needs and wants more precisely defined target audience. Hotels then use this knowledge to market a wide range of products and services through strong brands to a loyal customer for life. Some ramifications of changes will be made as reserves, trading activities and high taste information will be more automated. There will be a greater personal guest of technology accurate and fast service. Services and mobile technologies will be prompted to supply any service in the property. Supports functions such as accounting, human resources, reservations, etc. will be centralized at the place the most profitable worldwide. Medium sized hotels will be taken by brand chain like the Sheraton, Holiday Inn, Ramada, etc. while location will be the priority to choose a hotel by future traveler, brand names will be the next preference. Another aspect of future trends would be fusion of cuisines. The French started this trend with the Nouvelle Cuisine mixing eastern food products with western ones. Fusions restaurant will grow as the new adventurous public will search for new gastronomic experiences. (Intro to Hospitality Tourism   By Sudhir Andrews) A  bunkhouse is a youth hostel or barracks-like building that historically was used to cowboys working on ranches in North America. Like most cowboys were young single men, the standard bunkhouse was a large open room with narrow beds or cots for each individual and little privacy. The bunkhouse of the late 19th century was generally heated by a wood stove and personal needs were attended to in an outbuilding. A capsule hotel is a type of hotel, developed in Japan, which is a large number of very small rooms (capsules) cheap and easy accommodation for guests who do not require offers the services of more conventional hotel services offered. A condo hotel, also known as the hotel-condo or a Condotel, is a building used as a hotel and two condominium. Condo hotels are usually high-rise buildings developed and operated as luxury hotels in major cities and resorts in general. These residential units which allow someone to have a holiday full service. If they do not use this home can be used to ensure that the marketing and management of the hotel chain and manage the condo unit than any other hotel room is. An  ice hotel  is a temporary  hotel  made up of  snow, sculpted blocks of  ice, and, in some cases, some steel framing. They are promoted by their sponsors and have special features for travelers who are interested in novelties and unusual environments, and thus are in the class of  destination hotels. Their lobbies are often filled with  ice sculptures, and food and drinks are specially chosen for the circumstances. A pop-up hotel is a hotel that is temporary, being in one place for a short period before being moved. These hotels can be constructed from prefabricated modules that are connected together on site or from removable structures such as tents or they can be completely mobile, being built on a large vehicle. These hotels provide accommodation for seasonal events or unique such as music festivals in the outdoors. A Turbaza is, generally the Soviet era, the Russian form of cheap, spartan, holiday, a visit or a base camp tour. Turbazas are generally rented to groups or companies who rent the entire facility for holiday accommodation Oops for their members or employees. They are gene rally rustic located in rural areas that offer outdoor recreation. Eat, sleep, and often is housed in a large open space and common. A  love hotel  is a type of short-stay hotel found around the world operated primarily for the purpose of allowing couples privacy for  sexual activities. (^  Schreiber, Mark, Back to the future of a hotel for 2001,Japan Times, 16 January 2011, pp. 7-8). Managers problems In the hotel managers are responsible for all management of human resources, or as appropriate, all managers have the responsibility to understand their human resources. When providing services to our clients, our primary resource is our people, our workers, our employees. Successful hospitality managers must be able to work with people. We need to develop guidance of people in our management approach. As a manager with responsibilities for human resources, your concern is that people of their needs, wants, and desires fit the needs and desires of the hotel company. We define managers as the implementation of strategies, plans and programs to attract, motivate, develop, reward and retain the best people to meet the objectives of the organization. Mike Hurst also emphasizes the role of management changes over management in the past and in conduit. The hospitality is based on the gift of friendship friendly people who care, it has become imperative in a service management concentrate on the benefits to the people and his style. The managers of today have earned a place of respect for their contribution to organizational value. The contemporary role of managers with the human resources responsibilities is a critical one to any hospitality organization. Most of the people spends more than one-third of their waking hours at their jobs, and as a manager you will make the decision that affects and influence the lives, dreams, goals and ambitions of these individual and their families. Manager in the hospitality industry participate in strategic planning sessions, understand financial documents relating to the work and the bottom line. Many managers in the host organization is part of the management team. The managers role is more important than ever before in the hospitality industry. It is up to us to keep management informed of what their needs and desires of people to be productive, and to be faithful. There are some things that came into consideration to keep them loyal; management should recognize the importance of balancing work and personal life. An opportunity to grow within the organization. A better explanation of employee benefit. A feeling that their coworker have the necessary skills to do their jobs. (Mary L. Tanke, march 2000) The globalization of labor and continuing advances in technology are changing the way the labor market. Knowledge workers are known for their special properties. These are people who analyze, synthesize and evaluate information to solve different problems. Knowledge workers actually use their intelligence, ideas, products, services and processes to implement. Your most important asset of an organization is its ability to collect and analyze data and make decisions that benefit company (Jyothi, 2010), (Bohlander G. a., 2009) Technology has had a positive effect on the internal processes of an organization, but also changed the way the work of the HR staff. Some managers in the hospitality industry will see the application of technologies to operational issues as a problem. It is true that technological systems used in the bar, front office, restaurants, etc. much more advanced and complex than those currently available only for a short time, continue to grow, these systems quickly. The approval of the computer and other technologies from all levels of an organization is a major challenge in view of the sponsoring organizations. For example, if the systems are updated and new technologies have made à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ ¹Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ ¹the workers struggle to adapt. It is not a positive attitude towards it. (Bohlander G. a., 2009), (Hayes, 2009) The economic environment is very unpredictable and implementing change processes for each organization to make progress. Globalization and technology are the two main factors that drove the change in todays organizations. Globalization has opened new doors for business opportunities. It has led to many interventions, but also for how reform, reorganization, merger, downsizing, etc., in order to succeed, companies need to make these changes that have taken place with staff to manage the challenges occur. Change Management Sun is working smoothly for the vital organization. To do this, for example, when the new software is installed, which allows you to install the company has knowledge workers refuse to work on it. (Bohlander G. a., 2009) Due to the shortage of workers in the industry and the defection of customers of the quality of service that is affected. If the workload increases the performance of the employee moves. By too much work pressure, reduces the employees performance and, in turn, affects the quality of service. It is very important to overcome the various challenges faced by the organization to success. Company is now a day to develop the human resource function, because the meaning of HRM have been seen in the highly competitive market that exists today. In todays world of increased competition in the local and global. To succeed, businesses become stronger, more flexible and customer-oriented. Hr after for these changing market trends is adjusted. (Karan, Challenges faced by HR in the hotel industry, 2009). Staff turnover is critical for a hotel, especially if you have a high quality hotel as we do. The goal of our hotel is on exceptional customer service that will exceed customer expectations, and therefore, we invest heavily in our people. A high rate of staff turnover has an immediate effect in the hotel industry, particularly in the areas of customer service, and therefore we can not afford to lose a single employee. The rate of staff turnover in the hospitality industry is generally higher than in other sectors. One reason for this is that many of our employees are students to work at the hotel is a first step in a career for them, and as soon as they graduate from the institute, they may consider working in their field of specialization. (Jason C. Cho, 14 June 2011) The hotel industry has a high turnover, which decreases productivity and costs companies time and resources. A number of factors affect the fluctuation in the hotel and one of the reasons is ineffective in recruiting. Identify many hotels and difficult to recruit the right people. Hotel staff need advanced knowledge of beverages, which are difficult to measure for recruiters during the interview. However, recruiters develop recruitment strategies that will identify the best opportunities and recruit the best workers. Do you understand what a candidate looking at the recruitment stage can help the hotel staff turnover. (Rose Johnson, 2008) Read more: The Moscow Times To overcome this staff turnover keep in mind few thing. Which help in reduction on turnover. Understanding why employees leave. All organizations should conduct a confidential face-to-face exit interview with a HR manager (instead of the boss). Benchmark your company against current industry and geographical location. If you work in a restaurant business, you will naturally have a much higher turnover than auditing and consulting firm. Context and location are key. Set clear promotion and development policies that are transparent and fair. If an employee feels they do not progress in their role, and has no control over career development, after a certain time they will begin to look externally for a new position. Develop effective workplace policies and maintain a positive culture. Opened on appeal, bullying and harassment, the employee should be in an environment where employees feel confident to communicate about reporting problems. Investing in people management training for executives. This will enable them to not only support and reward employees effectively, but also t o intervene before small problems or escalating workloads are a reason for leaving.. The recruitment process can only be doing well if only the organization understands its requirements. The candidates should be selected according to the requirements of the organization. Different strategies are required for focusing on hiring high performers and average performers. The strategy has to be clear about the amount of experience they require. It can range from an experienced senior professional to a new fresher. It should also describe as in from which industry they require the employee. That is from the same industry, different industry, employed or unemployed professionals.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Cell Phones: Society‘s Newest Addiction Essay -- Technology, Psycholog

Imagine a situation in life where two friends are out for lunch or a couple is out on a date, and one person is talking on their cell phone the entire time. This is a perfect example of something that we as a society are experiencing more frequently every day. This kind of extremely rude behavior is starting to become the unfortunate norm in many social affairs, and this is just one example of how cell phones are starting to become a major addiction to everyone. Cell phones have become an extreme detriment to society for various reasons that are obvious every day. Cell phones have become the ultimate distraction and addiction for almost everyone in society today. Almost every person that is walking or driving around is on their cell phone in some way. Either they’re texting, on a phone call, or on the internet. It is extremely rare to look around anywhere and not see anyone with a phone in their hand. And when driving, this addiction goes from being just distracting to being seriously dangerous. According to a study by the University of Utah, distraction from cell phone use while driving (hand held or hands free) extends a driver's reaction as much as having a blood alcohol concentration at the legal limit of .08 percent. ( Even with the laws prohibiting texting while driving and having a phone up to the ear, people still do these things every day as if the laws do not exist. Driving and using your phone is a potentially deadly practice, but the addiction to cell phones has grown so strong that most people appear to be unable to put them down, even if it means risking their lives or the lives of their passengers and other drivers on the roads. The addiction to cell phone... ...ble to us nowadays it’s hard to not get caught up in the technological age. But even with all the advancements available to us as a society, we must not forget that there is a real world outside of the flashing, colorful world that is our cell phones. There are people to be spoken to face to face, things to see and do that cannot be experienced unless we look up from our cell phones or take them off our ears for just a small part of our day. A world without cell phones was able to manage and a world with them can function just as well as long as our usage is wise and controlled. Works Cited "Cell Phone Driving Statistics | Get Texting While Driving Statistics & Facts from Nationwide |" Nationwide Insurance - Auto Insurance Quotes and Car Insurance Rates. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2012. .

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Colonial Differences Essay -- essays research papers

The differences in development between the New England colonies and the Chesapeake or Middle colonies occurred for a many number of reasons. First, they were different people. They come from different places and had different ways of life. Not only did the two regions both have different governing systems, but they were also driven to the New World by different religions or incentives. Even their slight economic differences helped to shape the individuality of the two areas.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Most could probably see that is was painfully obvious as to who the religious fanatics were. New England’s colonists seemed to have a more religious tone, than did that of the Middle or Southern regions. The Puritans, who had apparently come to America to escape ridicule and religious persecution, were taking up on that very idea, punishing all those whom did not share in their ideas. They were stiff, strict people and did not allow for much, but the main idea is that they were driven by a higher power, God. This made the Puritans successful Massachusetts’s colonists in that they were strong-willed and willing to make their government work. The type of government chosen by the Puritans worked well, a theocratic environment. A theocracy is defined as government of a state by immediate divine guidance or by officials who are regarded as divinely guided. According the John Winthrop, who was to be their governor for some number of years, it seemed that t heir grand purpose in A...

Tuesday, September 17, 2019


Ratio decidendi and obiter dicta Learning objectives At the end of this module, you will be able to: * distinguish between ratio decidendi and obiter dicta. * apply well-established rules to identify the ratio decidendi in a decision. This module is intended as a useful exercise in revision. If you are certain that you understand how to discover the ratio in an opinion, you should skim lightly over this material. What is the ratio decidendi? As you probably recall from your studies, the term ratio decidendi is a Latin phrase which means the â€Å"the reason for deciding†. What exactly does this mean?In simple terms, a ratio is a ruling on a point of law. However, exactly what point of law has been decided depends on the facts of the case. | The importance of material facts As Goodhart A L (1891–1978) pointed out long ago in the 1930s, the ratio is in pratical terms inseparable from the material facts. Goodhart observed that it â€Å"is by his choice of material facts t hat the judge creates law†. By this Goodhart meant that the court's decision as to which facts are material or non-material is highly subjective, yet it is this inital decision which determines a higher or lower level of generality for the ratio.Goodhart's reformulation of the concept of the ratio was the subject of heated debate, particularly in the 1950s. Compare Goodhart's concept of the ratio with Lord Halsbury's statement that: â€Å"Every judgement must be read applicable to the particular facts proved, since the generality of the expressions which may be found there are not intended to be the expositions of the whole law but govern and are qualified by the particular facts of the case in which such expressions are to be found. Lord Halsbury (1901)What, if any, is the difference between Goodhart's material facts and Halsbury's particular facts? | What are obiter dicta? Obiter dicta is a Latin phrase meaning â€Å"things said by the way†. Obita dicta are not bindi ng (unlike the ratio), but they may be regarded as persuasive in a future decision. The weight given to dicta usually depends on the seniority of the court and the eminence of the judge in question. Obiter dicta are judicial opinions on points of law which are not directly relevant to the case in question.They are made when a judge chooses to give some indication of how he or she would decide a case similar, but not identical, to case under consideration. These statements are often meant to clarify the legal principle which the judge proposes to apply in his or her judgement. For this reason, obiter dicta often take the form of analogies, illustrations, points of contrast or conclusions based on hypothetical situations. Obiter dicta in one case might be adopted as ratio decidendi in subsequent cases. This occurs when a situation regarded as hypothetical by one judge arises in a subsequent case.Distinguishing between ratio and obita is not always simple. When questioned regarding the difference between ratio and obiter, Lord Asquith once remarked that: â€Å"The rule is quite simple: If you agree with the other bloke you say it is part of the ratio; if you don't you say it is obiter dictum, with the implication that he is a congenial idiot†. Although intended humorously, this remark has a good measure of truth. | Ratio decidendi and obiter dictaHow well do you recall the concept of the ratio decidendi from your undergraduate studies?Take a moment to read through the following statements: * A ratio decidendi is not an abstract principle, to be applied in a deductive fashion to a later case. Instead the ratio is a ruling on a point of law in relation to a specific case. * Only the ratio binds an inferior court. Cases themselves do not bind. * If the court is not required to make a ruling on a point of law, its decision will not give rise to a ratio. * There is no requirement for each judgement to contain a single ratio and no more. Multiple rationes are qu ite normal. Not every statement of law contained in a decision is necessarily ratio or obiter. A judge may refer to a principle only to express his or her disagreement or for the sake of completeness. For a statement of law to be ratio or obiter, the judge must express his or her explicit agreement with the principle. These are not mere niceties of legal doctrine. Bearing these points in mind will help you when you come to identifying the ratio in a judgement. | Finding the ratio decidendi Identifying the ratio in a judgement is frequently difficult.Judges are under no obligation to label the different parts of their judgement as ratio or obiter. In most cases, you need to read the entire judgement to determine the ratio. Some of the reasons for this include: * length of judgements. Many judgements are extremely lengthy and are written in dense, legal language. The ratio may not be expressed in a single sentence or even a single passage. * the lack of an explicit ratio. The extreme example of this is the judgement in Raffles v Wichelhaus [1864] 2 H&C 906. This famously consisted of a single sentence: â€Å"There must be judgement for the defendants†. the existence of multiple lines of argument. Some arguments will be ratio, others will be obiter and others might be neither. * uncertainty regarding which facts were material to the judgement. Judges sometimes fail to indicate which facts are significant and which are not, making it difficult to determine the appropriate level of generality at which a ratio should be stated. In some instances, a case will establish a legal principle which is refined over time, being broadened or narrowed as the result of successive judgements. | Why does finding the ratio have to be so hard?At the Tenth Commonwealth Law Conference, Bennin F A suggested that it would be better if judges were more explicit regarding the legal rules which they set down in their decisions. The answer given by Kirby J on this occasion was that judges would be reluctant to do so as â€Å"the discursive nature of their judgments is the historic basis of the development of the common law†. Bennion has argued that â€Å"there seems no reason why a judgement could not contain both a brief ‘legislative' passage and an accompanying discursive explanation†.What difficulties, if any, can you see with this suggestion? | Ratio in appellate decisions The problems associated with identifying the ratio in the case decided by an individual judge are multiplied in the case of appellate decisions. Most applelate courts sit with a an uneven number of judges. To discover the ratio of an appellate decision, you need to determine the ratio in the case of each individual judgement. The rule is that only the rationes contained in the majority judgements need to be considered.If a majority of judges agree on the same reasoning, you have identified a single ratio. Otherwise, there might be multiple rationes, or even none. Case s without a ratio In a some cases, there may be no majority support for any particular ratio. In such instances, subsequent courts tend to assume that all that is binding is the judgement itself. This means that subsequent cases will be decided on the basis of the decision only when the material facts are almost identical. This is not a purely theoretical possibility.In Paykel v Commissioner of Taxation (1994) 49 FCR 41, Heerey J applied the judgement of the majority in Hepples v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (1992) 173 CLR 492, despite the lack of a discernable ratio in the former decision. Finding the ratio There are a number of rules of thumb that you can use to determine the ratio decidendi. These include: * distinguish the facts which the court regarded as material from those which appeared unimportant. * discover the precedents applied. These will provide an indication of the court's approach. * in deciding the ratio, restrict your analysis to the opinions of the majority j udges. read subsequent decisions to find how the decision has been interpreted. The ratio that becomes recognised as a rule of law may not be the ratio that apparent in the original judgement. The last point is one that is sometimes overlooked. In many instances, the ratio in an individual judgement is less important than the legal principle for which a line of cases can be cited as authority. When reading a judgement, consider it at several level. Apart from reading the decision for what it actually says, read it also in terms of its subsequent reception.Assess the arguments of the judges and the advocates in the context both of the case and the future development of the law. If you are building an argument on the basis of a particular case, it is often dangerous to look at the case in isolation. In finding the ratio, it is often useful to consider the way in which judgements are written. Although there is no standard model, they often follow a broad pattern. In most cases, the jud gement is divided into three sections: * the facts agreed or proven * the range of applicable legal principles * the application of the appropriate principle to the facts.There are a number of formal tests that have been devised to assist in discovering the ratio. Two of the best known were developed by United States jurists: these are Goodhart's Test and Wambaugh's Test. Goodhart's Test Goodhart proposed these rules for finding the ratio decidendi: * The principle of a case is not found in the reasons given in the opinion. * The principle is not found in the rule of law set forth in the opinion. * The principle is not necessarily found by a consideration of all the ascertainable facts of the case, and the judge's decision. The principle of the case is found by taking account (a) of the facts treated by the judge as material, and (b) his decision as based on them. * In finding the principle it is also necessary to establish what facts were held to be immaterial by the judge, for the principle may depend as much on exclusion as it does on inclusion. Goodhart's Test has gained considerable popularity. However, as stated above, it is not without its critics. Wambough's Test Eugene Wambaugh (1856–1940) developed an older, but still useful, test. Warmbough's Test first appeared in a book published in the United Sates in 1894.Like Goodhart's Test, Wambaugh's rules focus on the question of what facts are material and which are not. Wambaugh begins with the observations that * no matter how accurate a legal proposition may be it does not necessarily form part of the ratio decidendi. * the proposition is not governed by all the facts, but by the material facts. Wambaugh recommends that you take the following steps if you think you have identified a potential ratio in a judgement: * frame the legal principle that you have identified from a judgement. invert a word or phrase which reverses the meaning of the principle. * ask yourself, if the court had the inverse principle in mind when reaching its decision, would it have reached the same conclusion? * if the answer to this question is yes, then your original proposition cannot be the ratio. Note that Wambaugh's Test works only with cases with a single ratio. Summary This module dealt with the following: * distinguishing between ratio decidendi and obiter dicta. * applying well-established rules to identify the ratio decidendi in a decision.